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The traditional role of middle managers has been evolving into one which is increasingly concerned with participation in the strategic management process. The reasons for…
The traditional role of middle managers has been evolving into one which is increasingly concerned with participation in the strategic management process. The reasons for this evolutionary change are discussed, along with problems facing middle managers today. Suggestions are offered for redefining the role of middle managers for more effective strategic management and planning in industrial organizations.
Recently, the senior author of this study conducted a series of seminars for top executives on “Strategic Management: A Problem of Implementation”. The series followed the…
Recently, the senior author of this study conducted a series of seminars for top executives on “Strategic Management: A Problem of Implementation”. The series followed the traditional seminar format in that a brief theoretical introduction was followed by lengthy open‐ended discussions. The most critical problem relating to strategic management, as perceived by the participants, was how to create an environment that encourages and rewards middle managers for thinking strategically. One of the executives aptly summarised the reasons for rewarding middle management for strategic thinking:
Since the publication of Harbison and Myers' study, many management scholars have devoted their attention to managerial systems in different cultures around the world…
Since the publication of Harbison and Myers' study, many management scholars have devoted their attention to managerial systems in different cultures around the world. However, the various studies in cross‐cultural management have been criticised for not having enough specificity and relatedness. This study is concerned with a very specific aspect of managerial lives, namely, pay. Within a broad theoretical framework, three propositions are related to the data collected from 545 middle managers in Britain and the US. The propositions are; that the degree of understanding of job objectives and the perceived importance of the individual's role are directly related to pay differentials (Proposition I); that this relationship has impact upon the perception of what are and what should be the criteria used for pay determination (Proposition II); and, that if the gaps between “are” and “should be” are large, then the responses on behavioural option indices will be largely negative (Proposition III). The propositions are generally supported by these data. Implications of the findings are also discussed.
The construction industry plays a significant role to the economy of Hong Kong not only in terms of output but also the employment. The sector, however, has been severely…
The construction industry plays a significant role to the economy of Hong Kong not only in terms of output but also the employment. The sector, however, has been severely hit by the economic downturn in recent years resulting in serious unemployment. Employment planning becomes one of the critical aspects for the recovery of the economy. The main objective of this paper is to establish a labour demand model for the Hong Kong construction industry. The unique characteristics and the current conditions of the construction labour market are reviewed. Regression analysis based on 123 construction projects was used to compute the relationship between expenditure and site workers employed. The best predictor of average labour demand of construction projects in Hong Kong is found to be DL = 463 C 0.934, where DL is the actual labour demand in man‐days, C is the final cost of contract in millions. The labour demand‐cost relationship can be applied as a manpower forecasting model to estimate the total labour required for a given type of project. The developed model enables a more reliable and accurate planning of manpower requirements in the construction industry.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the flow and turbulence characteristics of a turbulent wall jet flowing over a surface inclined with the horizontal and…
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the flow and turbulence characteristics of a turbulent wall jet flowing over a surface inclined with the horizontal and to investigate the effect of variation of the angle of inclination of the wall on the flow structure of the wall jet.
The high Reynolds number two-equation κ− model with standard wall function is used as the turbulence model. The Reynolds number considered for the present study is 10,000. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used for predicting the turbulent flow. A staggered differencing technique employing both contravariant and Cartesian components of velocity has been applied. Results for distribution of wall static pressure and skin friction, decay of maximum streamwise velocity, streamwise variation of integral momentum and energy flux have been compared for the cases of α=0°, 5°, and 10°.
Flow field has been represented in terms of streamwise and lateral velocity contours, static pressure contour, vorticity contour and streamwise velocity and static pressure profiles at different locations along the oblique offset plate. Distribution of Reynolds stresses in terms of spanwise, lateral and turbulent shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate have been presented to describe the turbulent characteristics. Similarity of streamwise velocity and the velocity parallel to the oblique wall has been observed in the developed region of the wall jet flow. A decaying trend is observed in the variation of total integral momentum flux in the developed region of the wall jet which becomes more evident with increase in oblique angle. Developed flow region has indicated trend of similarity in profiles of streamwise velocity as well as velocity component parallel to the oblique wall. A depression in wall static pressure has been observed near the nozzle exit when the wall is inclined and the depression increases with increase in inclination. Effect of variation of oblique angles on skin friction coefficient has indicated that it decreases with increase in oblique angle. Growth of the outer and inner shear layers and spread of the jet shows linear variation with distance along the oblique wall. Decay of maximum streamwise velocity is found to be unaffected by variation in oblique angle except in the far downstream region. The streamwise variation of spanwise integral energy shows increase in oblique angle and decreases the magnitude of energy flux through the domain. In the developed flow region, streamwise variation of centreline turbulent intensities shows increased values with increase in oblique angle, while turbulence intensities along the jet centreline in the region X<12 remain unaffected by change in oblique angles. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy distribution highlights the difference in turbulence characteristics between the wall jet and reattached offset jet flow. Near wall velocity distribution shows that the inner region of boundary layer of the developed oblique wall jet follows a logarithmic profile, but it shows some difference from the standard logarithmic curve of turbulent boundary layers which can be attributed to an increase in skin friction coefficient and a decrease in thickness of the wall attached layer.
The study presents an in-depth investigation of the interaction between the jet and the inclined wall. It is shown that due to the Coanda effect, the jet follows the nearby wall. The findings will be useful in the study of combined flow of wall jet and offset jet and dual offset jet on oblique surfaces leading to a better design of some mechanical jet flow devices.