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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Mamun Molla, Suvash C. Saha and M.A.I. Khan

The purpose of this paper is to discuss, with numerical simulations, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection laminar flow from an isothermal horizontal circular…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss, with numerical simulations, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection laminar flow from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder immersed in a fluid with viscosity proportional to a linear function of temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a non‐dimensional form and the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations are reduced to convenient form, which are solved numerically by two very efficient methods: implicit finite difference method together with Keller box scheme; and direct numerical scheme.

Findings

Numerical results are presented by velocity and temperature distributions of the fluid as well as heat transfer characteristics, namely the shearing stress and the local heat transfer rate in terms of the local skin‐friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number for a wide range of MHD parameter, viscosity‐variation parameter and viscous dissipation parameter.

Originality/value

MHD flow in this geometry with temperature dependent viscosity is absent in the literature. IN this paper, the results obtained from the numerical simulations have been verified by two methodologies.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Mamun Molla and Anwar Hossain

To investigate the effects of chemical reaction on natural convection heat and mass transfer from a sphere with temperature dependent viscosity.

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effects of chemical reaction on natural convection heat and mass transfer from a sphere with temperature dependent viscosity.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a non‐dimensional form and the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations are reduced to local non‐similarity boundary layer equations, which are solved numerically by very efficient implicit finite difference method together with Keller box scheme.

Findings

The effects of chemical reaction, the skin‐friction coefficients, surface heat transfer rates, velocity and concentration distribution decrease as well as the mass transfer rates and temperature distribution increase within the boundary layer.

Research limitations/implications

The investigation is valid for steady two‐dimensional laminar flow. The concentration of the reactant is maintained at a constant value and the sphere is isothermal. An extension to unsteady flow with temperature dependent thermal conductivity is left for future work.

Originality/value

This result provides guidance to engineers about heat and mass transfer with the effects of chemical reaction from isothermal spherical surface.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mahfuz Ashraf, Helena Grunfeld, Md. Rakibul Hoque and Khorshed Alam

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have received much attention as a tool for development for several decades. One way in which ICTs were introduced in…

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have received much attention as a tool for development for several decades. One way in which ICTs were introduced in developing countries, particularly prior to the advent of smartphones, was through shared access and information centres. Many of these were established as pilots, but were unable to operate without external funding and were often declared failures. And some of them probably were, particularly those that focussed exclusively on ICT as a technology, rather than on how the centres could contribute to improving livelihoods. The purpose of this paper is to explore how some centres, namely “Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) Gonokendra” in three villages of Bangladesh, influenced socio-economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was informed by the Heeks and Molla’s extended information chain model and Sen’s “development as freedom”. The field study was undertaken in three BRAC Gonokendras located in different villages in rural Bangladesh.

Findings

While the authors found that the centres contributed to socio-economic development, this contribution was limited by social constraints, hindering the well-being of individuals and families. Addressing social constraints thus remains a challenge in order for ICTs to contribute to development.

Originality/value

The extended framework to investigate ICT-led socio-economic development implies that ICT as a catalyst can promote development at micro/community level only by simultaneously addressing social constraints.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

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