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For non-profit organizations (NPOs) external funding is an essential resource. Studies highlight how control is attributed to funders and so external funding threatens the…
For non-profit organizations (NPOs) external funding is an essential resource. Studies highlight how control is attributed to funders and so external funding threatens the autonomy of the recipient organization. The purpose of this study is to investigate how external control can be structured and exercised, and to explore how control interacts with organizational autonomy.
The research is based on interviews and participant observations with NPOs and their funders over a period of time. It reports from four different funding-relations: contract-based, social investment, gift-funded and civil society–public partnership. The concept of organizational discretion is used to analyse how control and autonomy are interconnected in these relationship.
The analysis illustrates the value in exposing the different discretionary boundaries related to external control and how control can become a sparring partner in the organization's striving for autonomy. A concluding argument is that control and autonomy are each other's companions rather than antagonists. The study leads us to question a general assumption that NPOs strive to avoid resource dependence and external control but instead may use such control to develop strategies for independence and self-realization.
The empirical material is unique as it includes voices of recipient organizations and funders, and offers a comparison of different controlling-relations. The study presents an innovative analytical framework based on the concepts of discretionary space and reasoning, which supports a critical discussion regarding the idea of external control as detrimental to the autonomy of NPOs.
This paper seeks to illustrate the social and economic impact of services delivered by a small charity to families affected by post-natal depression (PND). It highlights…
This paper seeks to illustrate the social and economic impact of services delivered by a small charity to families affected by post-natal depression (PND). It highlights challenges and offers insights to the meaning of “social value” and “value for money” for commissioners of public health services. This has relevance for the introduction of new policies regarding commissioning.
The analysis is based on a social return on investment (SROI) approach. Evidence was gathered from quantitative data, interviews and a literature review. The analysis examined short-, medium- and long-term effects, and attributed monetary values to social outcomes.
The service provides a return of £6.50 for every £1 invested. The analysis established outcomes for service users and long-term impacts on families and children. It illustrated how these services are important in achieving more appropriate service responses, providing value for money to the NHS. Findings also relate to the definition of “social value” and “value for money”.
There is no common accepted method for identifying financial values for a number of the benefits identified in this analysis. By being transparent in how the analysis was carried out, the paper encourages further critical thinking in this area.
Engaging commissioners in this type of analysis may assist them in the use of economic evaluation that includes social values as an input to decision making.
The paper contributes to the understanding of “social value” and “value for money” in the context of public services. This is of importance given that the Social Value Act and “Open Public Services” reform are being implemented in the UK.
In the performance measurement and management research field, the applicability of performance measurement systems (PMS) in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and public…
In the performance measurement and management research field, the applicability of performance measurement systems (PMS) in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and public administration has been considered a challenge. The diversity of these organizations makes it difficult to define proper terminology and organizational characteristics. PMS evolution has not yet been able to capture all performance dimensions of a public administration and, especially for NPO considering its dynamic and multiple goals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that identifies and classifies the factors that influence the design of PMSs in NPOs and public administration.
The study was developed through a systematic literature review (SLR). A set of 29 papers were intensely studied, and the results provide a multi-disciplinary and holistic set of factors.
A set of ten factors that influence the design of PMSs in NPO and public administration were found. They were categorized into three groups: factor related to purpose, stakeholders and management.
The study synthesized the literature and provided a conceptual framework of the factors that influence the design of PMSs in NPO and public administration. No individual paper collected in the SLR shows a similar organization of the factors as the present paper. The set of factors indicates the importance of this study for NPO and public administration, and how complex a PMS in an NPO and public administration can become. The conceptual model presented can further assist practitioners in developing design process observing the role that the identified factors play.