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Last November we published an article entitled ‘Corrosion in Singapore,’ by Major P. A. Cartwright, a Senior Scientific Officer of the Operational Research Unit at GHQ., FARELF. Problems of packaging and storage in the tropics, as viewed from the receiving end, were discussed. One reader of this article was Mr. Toby James, of the Rootes Group, Coventry, and he has sent us the following observations based on trials, mainly concerned with the packing of motor‐car parts in this country, and from reports on the condition of shipments on arrival at their destinations.
Although Singapore has been taken as the example in the following article, the general factors of climate in relation to atmospheric corrosion are applicable in all…
Although Singapore has been taken as the example in the following article, the general factors of climate in relation to atmospheric corrosion are applicable in all tropical areas. The information given here by Major Cartwright will be of particular value to readers who manufacture or package for export to such areas.
A NEW ALLOY. FEW sections of the chemical industry face bigger corrosion troubles than fertiliser manufacture. In the past a somewhat negative policy has often been followed, letting corrosion have its fling and replacing a plant or new sections of it as and when necessary. This attitude is not as easy to justify today when plant costs are so much higher, and in some factories the development of new processes with greater corrosion risks has greatly accentuated the costs of non‐prevention. The production of high‐analysis phosphatic fertilisers, which involves producing and handling phosphoric acid, is a notable example. With ordinary superphosphate manufacture the main corrosion risk comes from sulphuric acid, but in making so‐called triple superphosphate, which enjoys a high demand from farmers, phosphoric acid is used instead of sulphuric acid to dissolve the mineral rock phosphate. Other modern processes are using nitric acid instead of sulphuric acid, producing an entirely new range of ‘nitro‐phosphates.’
Refractory Coatings. A new range of refractory protective coatings is being manufactured under the name of Coltrate R.P.C. There are several types to deal with varying…
Refractory Coatings. A new range of refractory protective coatings is being manufactured under the name of Coltrate R.P.C. There are several types to deal with varying conditions, and they are all supplied in the form of a dry powder. To prepare for use, the powder is mixed with water to a thick, creamy paste and applied by brushing, spraying or trowelling to give a coating thickness of 1/16 in. to ⅛ in. After application, the furnace is fired and the temperature steadily increased up to the point where vitrification is reached.
Scientists of the United States National Bureau of Standards have found that some aluminium alloys can resist corrosion in either a marine or inland atmosphere for at least 20 years. These results were obtained in a long‐range study conducted by F. M. Reinhart and G. A. Ellinger, of the Bureau's staff, for the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics. Besides determining the corrosion resistance of a large number of aluminium alloys, the study also provides data regarding the effects of heat treatment and protective coatings on corrosion rates.
Libraries have faced many periods of grim economic realities. These periods of hardship have forced libraries to strive for more efficient organizational structures. Many…
Libraries have faced many periods of grim economic realities. These periods of hardship have forced libraries to strive for more efficient organizational structures. Many of these improved organizational structures have been the result of mergers and/or consolidations. This phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of the merger design team of a large and complex library organization.
Results indicated the experience of the participants touched upon each of Bolman and Deal’s (2008) four frames: political, human resources, structural, and symbolic. The merger design team’s effectiveness on task is congruent with the model of team effectiveness proposed by Hackman (2002). Lastly, the role of underlying assumptions, espoused values and beliefs, and artifacts that makes up the organization’s culture falls within the parameters set forth by Schein (2004).
The received wisdom on classical accounting thought is that its early stages were methodologically vacuous, while, in its “golden” age, it espoused the methods and…
The received wisdom on classical accounting thought is that its early stages were methodologically vacuous, while, in its “golden” age, it espoused the methods and philosophical commitments of received-view hypothetico-deductivism but actually remained methodologically incoherent. The purpose of this paper is to argue, to the contrary, that classical accounting thought possesses a coherent constitutional structure that qualifies as a methodology and unifies it as a body of argument.
The paper draws on Cartwright’s metaphysical nomological pluralism, which holds that we should attend to the actual practices of successful inquiry and the methodologies and metaphysical presuppositions that support it.
The paper argues that accounting does achieve disciplinary success and that classical accounting thought, using the methodology of defeasible postulationism, provides the theoretical infrastructure that supports that success. The accounting domain is a world of “dappled realism”, in which theories are useful in the construction of reporting schemes and inform our understanding of the nature of the domain.
Applying metaphysical nomological pluralism rescues classical accounting thought from the charge of methodological incoherence and metaphysical naivety.
The paper justifies a place for classical accounting theorising in the endeavours of modern accounting scholarship and moves the analysis of classical accounting thought within a philosophy of science framework towards an approach with a contemporary resonance.
Three themes dominate Hunting Causes. The first is that cause is a plural concept. The methods and metaphysics of causation, Cartwright believes, are context dependent…
Three themes dominate Hunting Causes. The first is that cause is a plural concept. The methods and metaphysics of causation, Cartwright believes, are context dependent. Different causal accounts seem to be at odds with one another only because the same word means different things in different contexts. Every formal approach to causality uses a conceptual framework that is “thinner” than causal reality. She lists a bewildering variety of approaches to causation: probabilistic and Bayes-net accounts (of, for example, Patrick Suppes, Clive Granger, Wolfgang Spohn, Judea Pearl, and Clark Glymour), modularity accounts (Pearl, James Woodward, and Stephen LeRoy), invariance accounts (Woodward, David Hendry, and Kevin Hoover), natural experiments (Herbert Simon, James Hamilton, and Cartwright), causal process accounts (Wesley Salmon and Philip Dowe), efficacy accounts (Hoover), counterfactual accounts (David Lewis, Hendry, Paul Holland, and Donald Rubin), manipulationist accounts (Peter Menzies and Huw Price), and others. The lists of advocates of various accounts overlap. Nevertheless, she sometimes treats these accounts as if they were so different that it is not clear why they should be the subject of a single book. And she fails to explain what they have in common. If, as she apparently believes, they do not have a common essence, do they have a Wittgensteinian family resemblance? She fails to explore in any systematic way the complementarities among the different approaches – for example, between invariance accounts, Bayes-nets, and natural experiments – that frequently make their advocates allies rather than opponents.
This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the…
This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the discipline during the last two decades. These trends are: (a) the philosophical analysis of economic modelling and economic explanation; (b) the epistemology of causal inference, evidence diversity and evidence-based policy and (c) the investigation of the methodological underpinnings and public policy implications of behavioural economics. The final output is inevitably not exhaustive, yet it aims at offering a fair taste of some of the most representative questions in the field on which many philosophers, methodologists and social scientists have recently been placing a great deal of intellectual effort. The topics and references compiled in this review should serve at least as safe introductions to some of the central research questions in the philosophy and methodology of economics.
This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but…
This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but distinct constructs that have been introduced to the literature. While each construct has contributed to our understanding of the role of culture, the lack of connections made among constructs has limited the consolidation of contributions. The review shows what these constructs mean for mergers and acquisitions, what major findings have been discovered, and, most importantly, how constructs interrelate. Our discussion provides several opportunities to foster the needed consolidation of this research.