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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Monireh Panbehkar-Jouybari, Mehdi Mollahosseini, Asieh Panjeshahin and Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh

Garlic supplementation may be inversely contributed to body weight and composition; however, previous results have been inconsistent. This study aims to evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

Garlic supplementation may be inversely contributed to body weight and composition; however, previous results have been inconsistent. This study aims to evaluate the effect of garlic supplementation on body weight and composition using a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Online databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched up to January 2020. The random-effects model was used to calculate the effect sizes of the included studies. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration’s tool. Besides, the NutriGrade scoring system was applied to judge the credibility of the evidence.

Findings

In total, 18 studies (with 1,250 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that garlic supplementation has a significant increase in body weight [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.31 Kg, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.53 Kg, P = 0.005, n = 12 effect sizes]. Waist circumference (WC) does remarkably reduce [WMD = −1.28 cm, 95% CI: −2.08, −0.47 cm, P = 0.002, n = 4 effect size]. However, body mass index, body fat percent and fat-free mass do not dramatically change (P > 0.05). Notably, the pooled analyses on body weight and WC were sensitive to two included studies. NutriGrade’s score was rated low for this meta-analysis.

Originality/value

Although garlic supplementation could slightly increase weight and simultaneously might decrease WC, these associations were not strong enough to corroborate the findings. Also, other anthropometric indices do not significantly change. Further well-designed randomized clinical trial studies are needed to confirm the results.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Sahar Sarkhosh-Khorasani, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Masoud Mirzaei and Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh

Established data revealed a relationship between obesity and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity of chronic diseases. There are conflicting data regarding the…

Abstract

Purpose

Established data revealed a relationship between obesity and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity of chronic diseases. There are conflicting data regarding the association between adherence of dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate this relationship among a large sample of Iranian adults.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was performed by 10,693 individuals; 6750 individuals related to Yazd Health Study living in the urban area and 3943 individuals related to Shahedieh cohort study living in the suburb area. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In all participants, anthropometric indices including body mass index were measured. The DASH score was considered using gender-specific quintiles of DASH items. To evaluate the relationship of DASH diet and obesity, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.

Findings

By adjusting confounders, participants in highest quintiles of DASH diet were compared to the lowest have lower odds of obesity in suburb area (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.96), in urban (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.99) and in whole population of both studies (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.90). Besides, more compliance of women to this diet in urban (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.85) and population of both studies (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96) were associated with reduced odds of central obesity.

Research limitations/implications

Considering this study limitations, the following can be mentioned: in this cross-sectional study, the causal relationship between DASH diet and obesity could not be assessed. Consequently, further prospective studies are required in this area. Second, although a valid food frequency questionnaire was used, but there was a measurement error and an error in the classification of people participating in the study. Moreover, we cannot reject the possibility of residual confounding bias because unknown or unmeasured confounders may exist that affected our results. Finally, our participants with odds of obesity might have been advised to reduce their fat intake, which led them to alter their dietary habits. However, such possibility cannot be resolved in a cross-sectional study.

Originality/value

DASH dietary pattern could decrease odds of obesity in both urban and suburb area and central obesity in urban area only. Further prospective studies are needed for causal conclusion.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Shirin Hassani Zadeh, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Masoud Mirzaei, Amin Salehi-Abargouei and Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh

Dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the association between the Healthy Eating Index-2015…

Abstract

Purpose

Dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the association between the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and MetS.

Design/methodology/approach

MetS was diagnosed among 2,326 adults. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. The HEI-2015 was administered to assess the diet qualities. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to evaluate the relationship of HEI-2015 with MetS and its components.

Findings

The odds of MetS was lower in women who were in the third quintile of HEI-2015 compared with those in the first quintile after adjusting for age and energy intake (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.41 to 0.93). In addition, moderate adherence to HEI-2015 reduced the odds of high fasting blood glucose levels in both men and women (OR men: 0.30, CI: 0.11 to 0.85 OR women: 0.34, CI: 0.14 to 0.79). However, these relations were not linear. Adherence to HEI-2015 had no significant relationship with the prevalence of MetS and its components in the whole population.

Originality/value

A significant relationship was observed between moderate adherence to HEI-2015 and fasting blood glucose in both men and women. Moreover, moderate adherence to this dietary pattern decreased the prevalence of MetS in women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Soraya Ramezanzadeh, Ozra Etemadi and Faramarz Asanjarani

Divorce has negative effects on children, although emotions that children experience after parental divorce are open to different interpretations. Accordingly, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Divorce has negative effects on children, although emotions that children experience after parental divorce are open to different interpretations. Accordingly, this study was conducted to explore loneliness in children of divorce.

Design/methodology/approach

A constructivist grounded theory study was carried out through the lens of definitive guidelines provided by Charmaz (2006). The participants were 15 female children aged 11–12 years, who were purposively selected. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and memos. To analyze data, the authors used four coding techniques, including initial, focused, axial, and theoretical coding. Also, to examine the links between the identified themes, the authors focused on three factors: conditions, actions/interactions, and consequences.

Findings

The analysis of the obtained data through the above-mentioned stages led to the identification of three main themes, including parental unavailability, rejection, and mistrust, which shaped children's experience of loneliness through lack of physical access, lack of emotional access, low levels of parental expectations, lack of supervision, absence of belongingness, being ignored, pessimistic views, and insecure relationships.

Originality/value

As was suggested by attachment theory, children of divorce lost their attachment bonds with their parents that intensified their perception of loneliness and negatively affected their social and academic performance. It was revealed that, effects of divorce went beyond the loss of the attachment bonds in families because our participants talked about their relationships with peers and their position in a society, where divorce carries the social stigma and children of divorced mother are marginalized.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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