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Article

Safire Torres Santos da Silva, Nikola Jerance and Harijaona Lalao Rakotoarison

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for simulating contamination by ferromagnetic particles in sensors that use permanent magnets. This topic is especially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for simulating contamination by ferromagnetic particles in sensors that use permanent magnets. This topic is especially important for automotive applications, where magnetic sensors are extensively used and where metallic particles are present, particularly because of friction between mechanical parts. The aim of the model is to predict the particle accumulation and its effect on the sensor performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Magnetostatic moment method is used to calculate particles' magnetization and magnetic field. Magnetic saturation is included and Newton–Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear system. Magnetic force on particles is calculated as a gradient of energy. Dynamic simulation provides the positions of agglomerated particles.

Findings

A simulation of magnetic park lock sensor shows a significant impact of ferromagnetic particles on sensor's accuracy. Moreover, gains on computational time because of model optimizations are reported.

Research limitations/implications

Only magnetic force and gravity are taken into account for particle dynamics. Mechanical forces such as friction and particle interactions might be considered in future works.

Practical implications

This paper provides the possibility to evaluate and improve magnetic sensor design with respect to particles contamination.

Originality/value

The paper presents a novel simulation tool developed to answer the growing need for reliable and fast prediction of magnetic position sensors’ degradation in the presence of metallic particles.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Zhu Feng, Shaotao Zhi, Lei Guo, Chong Lei and Yong Zhou

This paper aims to investigate magnetic field anneal in micro-patterned Co-based amorphous ribbon on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect enhancement.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate magnetic field anneal in micro-patterned Co-based amorphous ribbon on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect enhancement.

Design/methodology/approach

The amorphous ribbons were annealed in transverse and longitudinal magnetic field. The influence of different field annealing directions on GMI effect and impedance Z, resistance R and reactance X with a series of line width have been deeply analyzed.

Findings

In comparison with GMI sensors microfabricated by unannealed and transversal field annealed ribbons, GMI sensor which was designed and microfabricated by longitudinal field anneal ribbon performs better. The results can be explained by the domain wall motion and domain rotation during annealing process and the geometric structure of Co-based GMI sensor. In addition, shrinking the line width of GMI sensor can promote GMI effect significantly because of the effect of demagnetizing field, and the optimum GMI ratio is 209.7 per cent in longitudinal field annealed GMI sensor with 200 μm line width.

Originality/value

In conclusion, annealing in longitudinal magnetic field and decreasing line width can enhance GMI effect in micro-patterned Co-based amorphous ribbon.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Rajesh Keshwani and Shiben Bhattacharya

The purpose of this paper is to describe how to improve magnetic pick up sensor for detection of weak magnetic field. A magnetic marker detection system, built using hall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how to improve magnetic pick up sensor for detection of weak magnetic field. A magnetic marker detection system, built using hall sensors is improved by providing ferrite cores as back yoke to obtain benchmarked performance with reduced number of hall sensors in an equipment for pipeline inspection called caliper tool.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opts for an exploratory study by making various configurations of sensors possible under given constraints, analyzing results of each one of them and correcting the configuration.

Findings

Instead of using highly sensitive hall sensors, one can increase the sensitivity of sensor by putting simple ferrite core as back yoke in order to detect weak magnetic field.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils the need of detection of weak magnetic field by changing field direction and maximizing field component in direction of sensitive axis of magnetic sensor.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Zhu Feng, Shaotao Zhi, Xuecheng Sun, Lili Yan, Cui Liu and Chong Lei

This paper aims to investigate the influence of structure parameters on giant-magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect measured by non-contact method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of structure parameters on giant-magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect measured by non-contact method.

Design/methodology/approach

The GMI sensor contains a Co-based internal magnetic core fabricated by laser cutting and an external solenoid. The influences of magnetic permeability of magnetic core and structure parameters on GMI effect were calculated in theoretical model. The output impedance, resistance, reactance and GMI ratio were measured by non-contact method using impedance analyzer.

Findings

Enhancing external magnetic field intensity can decrease the magnetic permeability of core, which has vital influences on the magnetic property and the output response of GMI sensor. In addition, increasing the width of magnetic core and the number of solenoid turns can increase the maximum GMI ratio. The maximum GMI ratio is 3,230% with core width of 6 mm and solenoid turns of 200.

Originality/value

Comparing with traditional contact-measured GMI sensor, the maximum GMI ratio and the magnetic field sensitivity are improved and the power consumption is decreased in non-contact measured GMI sensor. GMI sensor measured by non-contact method has a wide range of potential applications in ultra-sensitive magnetic field detection.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Shengzhi Chen, Minghua Zhu, Qing Zhang, Xuesong Cai and Bo Xiao

The differential magnetic gradient tensor system is usually constructed from the three-axis magnetic sensor array. While the effects of measurement error, sensor

Abstract

Purpose

The differential magnetic gradient tensor system is usually constructed from the three-axis magnetic sensor array. While the effects of measurement error, sensor performance and baseline distance on localization performance of such systems have been widely reported, the research about the effect of spatial design of sensor array is less presented. This paper aims to provide a spatial design method of sensor array and corresponding optimization strategy to localization based on magnetic tensor gradient to get the optimum design of the sensor array. Based on the results of simulation, magnetic localization systems constructed from the proposed array and the traditional array have been built to carry out a localization experiment. The results of experiment have verified the effectiveness of magnetic localization based on the proposed array.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on the localization of the magnetic target based on magnetic gradient by using three-axis magnetic sensor array and combine a design method with corresponding optimization strategy to get the optimum design of the sensor array.

Findings

This paper provides an array design and optimization method for magnetic target localization based on magnetic gradient to improve the localization performance.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors focus on the magnetic localization based on magnetic gradient by using three-axis magnetic sensors and study the effect of the spatial design of sensor array on localization performance.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Yue Ji, Xingfei Li, Tengfei Wu, Cheng Chen and Ying Yang

The evaluations of the magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) in its applications necessitate further improvements in the sensor’s dynamic measurement ability…

Abstract

Purpose

The evaluations of the magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) in its applications necessitate further improvements in the sensor’s dynamic measurement ability. The magnetic field of the MHD ARS is a key factor in the sensor’s modeling and error analysis. The aim of this study is to illustrate the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field on the sensor.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation is made using ANSYS FLUNET with the magnetic field calculated by 3D-Magnetostatic. The comparison of the simulation results between uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields is made to reveal and explain the effects of magnetic field inhomogeneity (MFI) on the flow and electric field in detail. Two different structures with different MFIs are designed to confirm the MFI effect on the sensor’s output in simulation and experiment. A cross-correlation experiment and an adaptive filter are carried out to extract the signal to identify the error of the sensor output caused by MFI.

Findings

The MFI effect on the flow field in MHD ARS is found to be insignificant, while its effect on the electric potential is considerable. The comparisons between two kinds of MHD ARS in numerical simulation and experiment show that the MFI effect on the sensor error can be identified by fitting the sensor output. The deviation is mainly generated at the peaks and valleys of an angular vibration.

Originality/value

The study of the MHD ARS under the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field can offer an understanding of the MFI effect on the sensor and an evaluation method of the sensor error caused by the MFI effect.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Chengzhu Xiu, Liang Ren, Hongnan Li and Ziguang Jia

Magnetic permeability variations of ferromagnetic materials under elastic stress offer the potential to monitor tension based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Magnetic permeability variations of ferromagnetic materials under elastic stress offer the potential to monitor tension based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect. The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative self-inductance tension eddy current sensor to detect tension.

Design/methodology/approach

The effectiveness of conventional elasto-magnetic (EM) sensor is limited during signal detection, due to its complex sensor structure, which includes excitation and induction coils. In this paper, a novel self-inductance tension eddy current sensor using a single coil is presented.

Findings

The output signal was analyzed through oscilloscope in the frequency domain and via self-developed data logger in the time domain. Experimental results show the existence of a linear relationship between voltage across the sensor and tension. The sensor sensitivity is dependent on operating conditions, such as current and frequency of the input signal.

Practical implications

The self-inductance sensor has great potential for replacing conventional EM sensor due to its low cost, simple structure, high precision and good repeatability in tension detection.

Originality/value

A spilt sleeve structure provides a higher permeability path to magnetic field lines than a non-sleeve structure, thus reducing the loss of magnetic field. The self-developed data logger improves sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of sensor. The novel sensor, as a replacement of the EM sensor, can easily and accurately monitor the tension force.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

C. Schott, F. Burger, H. Blanchard and L. Chiesi

The new developments in silicon Hall sensors are highlighted. First, basic components made by microelectronic technology are explained. They lead to the development of…

Abstract

The new developments in silicon Hall sensors are highlighted. First, basic components made by microelectronic technology are explained. They lead to the development of high accuracy vectorial magnetic probes. Then examples of new applications like angular position sensor and current measurements are illustrated. Finally, new concepts in order to increase the detectivity using magnetic chopping are demonstrated.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Ivan Yatchev, Mehmet Sen, Iosko Balabozov and Ivan Kostov

The purpose of the paper is to clarify the influence of introducing magnetic concentrators on the performance of Hall effect based current sensors and to obtain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to clarify the influence of introducing magnetic concentrators on the performance of Hall effect based current sensors and to obtain dependencies of the sensor characteristics on the conductor position.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite element method and Comsol software are used for analysis of the three-dimensional magnetic field of the constructions of Hall effect based current sensor with different types of magnetic concentrators – closed-core (of rectangular and toroidal type) and open-core of toroidal type – with additional larger air gap. The Hall plate is also included in the model with its real dimensions and the magnetic flux density is obtained by integrating over its volume.

Findings

It has been found that there is dependence of the output signal (proportional to the magnetic flux density) of Hall effect based current sensor with both closed- and open-core magnetic concentrators on the position of the current carrying conductor. Distribution of the magnetic flux density and dependencies of its value in the Hall plate on the conductor position and on the additional air gap have been obtained. Optimization is carried out with respect to the additional air gap and cross-section dimensions of the concentrator.

Originality/value

Estimation of the influence of the introducing magnetic concentrators is made with respect to relationships between the output signal and conductor position for different constructions of the magnetic core of the concentrators.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Lijun Meng, Xinyu Li and Xin Tan

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was designed to measure the door gap of automobile bodies.

Abstract

Purpose

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was designed to measure the door gap of automobile bodies.

Design/methodology/approach

The gap sensor was designed through a combination of the sliding wedge and cantilever beam, involving a magnetic force installation and arc structure of the force transmission point. Moreover, the sliding block adopted an anti-magnetic and wear-resistant material and the temperature compensation of the two FBGs was conducted. The magnetic force and contact stress of the sensor were examined to ensure that the sensor exhibited a certain magnetic attraction force and fatigue life. The performance of the gap sensor was examined experimentally.

Findings

The sensor could measure gaps with dimensions of 5 mm to 11 mm, with a sensitivity and measurement accuracy of 150.9 pm/mm and 0.0063% F.S., respectively. Moreover, the sensor exhibited a small gap sensitivity, with a repeatability error of 0.15%, anti-creep properties and magnetic interference abilities.

Originality/value

The sensor is compact and easy to install, as well as use for multiple sensor locations, with a maximum size of 43 mm, a mass of 26 g and installation type of magnetic suction. It can be used for high-precision static and dynamic measurements of the door inner clearance with a resolution of 0.013 mm to improve the efficiency of internal clearance on-line analysis and assembly quality inspection.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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