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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Ryoko Minehisa, Yasuhito Takahashi, Koji Fujiwara, Norio Takahashi, Masafumi Fujita, Kazuma Tsujikawa and Ken Nagakura

This paper aims to propose a homogenization method considering magnetic anisotropy for a magnetic field analysis of a turbine generator. To verify the validity of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a homogenization method considering magnetic anisotropy for a magnetic field analysis of a turbine generator. To verify the validity of the proposed method, the effects of magnetic anisotropy and a space factor on a no-load saturation curve and no-load iron loss of the turbine generator are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method was derived from the combination of the homogenization of microscopic fields in a laminated iron core with the modelling of two-dimensional magnetic properties based on free energy. To verify the validity, the proposed method was applied to a finite-element analysis of a simple ring core model. Finally, a no-load saturation curve and iron loss of the turbine generator was investigated by using the proposed method.

Findings

The computational accuracy of the homogenization method considering magnetic anisotropy is almost the same as that of the detailed modelling of the laminated structure in the magnetic field analysis of the laminated iron core. Furthermore, it is clarified that magnetic anisotropy does not have a large influence on the no-load saturation curve of the turbine generator because of the large air gap. On the other hand, the space factor affects the shape of the no-load saturation curve.

Originality/value

This paper verifies the validity of the homogenization method considering magnetic anisotropy method and elucidates the effects of magnetic anisotropy and a space factor on no-load characteristics of the turbine generator.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Shinichi Yamaguchi, Akihiro Daikoku and Norio Takahashi

This paper describes the cogging torque of the permanent magnet synchronous (PM) motors due to the magnetic anisotropy of motor core. The cogging torque due to the magnetic

Abstract

This paper describes the cogging torque of the permanent magnet synchronous (PM) motors due to the magnetic anisotropy of motor core. The cogging torque due to the magnetic anisotropy is calculated by the finite element method using two kinds of modeling methods: one is the 2D magnetization property method, and the other is the conventional method. As a result, the PM motors with parallel laminated core show different cogging torque waveform from the PM motors with the rotational laminated core due to the influence of the magnetic anisotropy. The amplitudes of the cogging torque are different depending on the modeling methods in the region of high flux density.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Floran Martin, Deepak Singh, Anouar Belahcen, Paavo Rasilo, Ari Haavisto and Antero Arkkio

Recent investigations on magnetic properties of non-oriented (NO) steel sheets enhance the comprehension of the magnetic anisotropy behaviour of widely employed electrical…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent investigations on magnetic properties of non-oriented (NO) steel sheets enhance the comprehension of the magnetic anisotropy behaviour of widely employed electrical sheets. The concept of energy/coenergy density can be employed to model these magnetic properties. However, it usually presents an implicit form which requires an iterative process. The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical model to consider these magnetic properties with an explicit formulation in order to ease the computations.

Design/methodology/approach

From rotational measurements, the anhysteretic curves are interpolated in order to extract the magnetic energy density for different directions and amplitudes of the magnetic flux density. Furthermore, the analytical representation of this energy is suggested based on statistical distribution which aims to minimize the intrinsic energy of the material. The model is finally validated by comparing measured and computed values of the magnetic field strength.

Findings

The proposed model is based on an analytical formulation of the energy depending on the components of the magnetic flux density. This formulation is composed of three Gumbel distributions. Every functional parameters of energy density is formulated with only four parameters which are calculated by fitting the energy extracted from measurements. Finally, the proposed model is validated by comparing the computation and the measurements of 9

H

loci for NO steel sheets at 10 Hz. The proposed analytical model shows good agreements with an average relative error of 27 per cent.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original analytical method to model magnetic anisotropy for NO electrical sheets. With this analytical formulation, the determination of H does not require any iterative process as it is usually the case with this energy method coupled with implicit function. This method can be easily incorporated in finite element method since it does not require any extra iterative process.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Brijesh Upadhaya, Floran Martin, Paavo Rasilo, Paul Handgruber, Anouar Belahcen and Antero Arkkio

Non-oriented electrical steel presents anisotropic behaviour. Modelling such anisotropic behaviour has become a necessity for accurate design of electrical machines. The…

299

Abstract

Purpose

Non-oriented electrical steel presents anisotropic behaviour. Modelling such anisotropic behaviour has become a necessity for accurate design of electrical machines. The main aim of this study is to model the magnetic anisotropy in the non-oriented electrical steel sheet of grade M400-50A using a phenomenological hysteresis model.

Design/methodology/approach

The well-known phenomenological vector Jiles–Atherton hysteresis model is modified to correctly model the typical anisotropic behaviour of the non-oriented electrical steel sheet, which is not described correctly by the original vector Jiles–Atherton model. The modification to the vector model is implemented through the anhysteretic magnetization. Instead of the commonly used classical Langevin function, the authors introduced 2D bi-cubic spline to represent the anhysteretic magnetization for modelling the magnetic anisotropy.

Findings

The proposed model is found to yield good agreement with the measurement data. Comparisons are done between the original vector model and the proposed model. Another comparison is also made between the results obtained considering two different modifications to the anhysteretic magnetization.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original method to model the anhysteretic magnetization based on projections of the anhysteretic magnetization in the principal axis, and apply such modification to the vector Jiles–Atherton model to account for the magnetic anisotropy. The replacement of the classical Langevin function with the spline resulted in better fitting. The proposed model could be used in the numerical analysis of magnetic field in an electrical application.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Xiao Xiao, Fabian Müller, Martin Marco Nell and Kay Hameyer

This paper aims to use a history-dependent vector stop hysteresis model incorporated into a two dimensional finite elements (FE) simulation environment to solve the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use a history-dependent vector stop hysteresis model incorporated into a two dimensional finite elements (FE) simulation environment to solve the magnetic field problems in electrical machines. The vector stop hysteresis model is valid for representing the anisotropic magnetization characteristics of electrical steel sheets. Comparisons of the simulated results with measurements show that the model is well appropriate for the simulation of electrical machines with alternating, rotating and harmonic magnetic flux densities.

Design/methodology/approach

The anisotropy of the permeability of an electrical steel sheet can be represented by integrating anhysteretic surfaces into the elastic element of a vector hysteresis stop model. The parameters of the vector stop hysteresis model were identified by minimizing the errors between the simulated results and measurements. In this paper, a damped Newton method is applied to solve the nonlinear problem, which ensures a robust convergence of the finite elements simulation with vector stop hysteresis model.

Findings

Analyzing the measurements of the electrical steel sheets sample obtained from a rotational single sheet tester shows the importance to consider the anisotropic and saturation behavior of the material. Comparing the calculated and measured data corroborates the hypothesis that the presented energy-based vector stop hysteresis model is able to represent these magnetic properties appropriately. To ensure a unique way of hysteresis loops during finite elements simulation, the memory of the vector stop hysteresis model from last time step is kept unchanged during the Newton iterations.

Originality/value

The results of this work demonstrates that the presented vector hysteresis stop model allows simulation of vector hysteresis effects of electrical steel sheets in electrical machines with a limited amount of measurements. The essential properties of the electrical steel sheets, such as phase shifts, the anisotropy of magnetizations and the magnetization characteristics by alternating, rotating, harmonic magnetization types, can be accurately represented.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Xiao Xiao, Fabian Müller, Martin Marco Nell and Kay Hameyer

The ordinary vector hysteresis stop model with constant threshold values is not able to prohibit the hysteretic property after the saturation correctly. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The ordinary vector hysteresis stop model with constant threshold values is not able to prohibit the hysteretic property after the saturation correctly. This paper aims to develop an improved vector hysteresis stop model with threshold surfaces. This advanced anisotropic vector hysteresis stop model can represent the magnetic saturation properties and the hysteresis losses under alternating and rotating magnetizations.

Design/methodology/approach

By integrating anhysteretic surfaces into the elastic element of a vector hysteresis stop model, the anisotropy of the permeability of an electrical steel sheet can be represented. Instead of the commonly used constant threshold value for plastic elements of the hysteresis model, threshold surfaces are applied to the stop hysterons. The threshold surfaces can be derived directly from measured alternating major loops of the material sample. By saturated polarization, the constructed threshold surfaces are vanishing. In this way, the reversible magnetic flux density is in the same direction of the applied magnetic flux density. Thus, the saturation properties are satisfied.

Findings

Analyzing the measurements of the electrical steel sheets sample obtained from a rotational single sheet tester shows that the clockwise (CW) and counter-CW (CCW) rotational hysteresis losses decrease by saturated flux density. At this state, instead of the domain wall motion, the magnetization rotation is dominant in the material. As a result, the hysteresis losses, which are related to the domain wall motion, are vanished near the saturation. In one stop operator, the plastic element represents the hysteresis part of the model. Integrating threshold surface into the plastic element, the hysteresis part can be modified to zero near the saturation to represent the saturation properties.

Originality/value

The results of this work demonstrate that the presented vector hysteresis stop model allows simulation of anisotropic hysteresis effects, alternating and rotating hysteresis losses. The parameters of the hysteresis model are determined by comparing the measured and modeled minor loops in different alternating magnetization directions. With the identified parameters, the proposed model is excited with rotated excitations in CW and CCW directions. The rotated hysteresis losses, derived from the model, are then compared with those experimentally measured. The modified vector stop model can significantly improve the accuracy of representing hysteresis saturations and losses.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

A. Rezic and Z. Valkovic

Calculation of flux distribution in three‐phase three‐limb transformer core has been made using 2D finite element method. The calculation has been performed with and…

Abstract

Calculation of flux distribution in three‐phase three‐limb transformer core has been made using 2D finite element method. The calculation has been performed with and without taking into account lthe hysteresis of magnetic material. Anisotropy of magnetic material has been modelled through the so‐called elliptic permeability model. Comparison of results of calculation and results of measurement has been performed for a scale model of transformer core. An agreement better than 3 per cent has been obtained, for calculated and measured results of third harmonics and of flux distortion factors, when hysteresis has been taken into account. The CPU‐time was 6–10 times longer when hysteresis has been included into calculation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Witold Mazgaj and Adam Warzecha

The purpose of this paper is to present the differences in results of numerical calculations arising from different simplifications of the rotational magnetization model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the differences in results of numerical calculations arising from different simplifications of the rotational magnetization model in typical dynamo sheets.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive model of rotational magnetization processes in typical dynamo sheets should take into consideration the magnetic hysteresis and eddy current phenomena and also certain anisotropic properties. The chosen model of the rotational magnetization is briefly presented in this paper. A method of the inclusion of the rotational magnetization model into equations of the magnetic field distribution is described. The correctness of these equations has been verified experimentally. Numerical calculations of the rotational magnetization in two types of dynamo sheets were carried out for several simplifications of the described model.

Findings

Results of numerical calculations of the rotational magnetization with the omission of the hysteresis phenomenon or with the omission of eddy currents were compared with results obtained with the use of the comprehensive model of the rotational magnetization.

Practical implications

The paper presents comments and recommendations concerning the omission of both the hysteresis phenomenon and eddy currents in the analysis of the rotational magnetization in dynamo sheets and the impact of these simplifications on numerical calculation results.

Originality/value

The content of the paper refers to very important issues of modeling and calculations of the rotational magnetization in typical dynamo steel sheets.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

K. Wiak

Discusses the 27 papers in ISEF 1999 Proceedings on the subject of electromagnetisms. States the groups of papers cover such subjects within the discipline as: induction…

Abstract

Discusses the 27 papers in ISEF 1999 Proceedings on the subject of electromagnetisms. States the groups of papers cover such subjects within the discipline as: induction machines; reluctance motors; PM motors; transformers and reactors; and special problems and applications. Debates all of these in great detail and itemizes each with greater in‐depth discussion of the various technical applications and areas. Concludes that the recommendations made should be adhered to.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Piyush Tankwal, Vikas Nehra, Sanjay Prajapati and Brajesh Kumar Kaushik

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the characteristics of hybrid conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor/magnetic tunnel junction (CMOS/MTJ…

142

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the characteristics of hybrid conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor/magnetic tunnel junction (CMOS/MTJ) logic gates based on spin transfer torque (STT) and differential spin Hall effect (DSHE) magnetic random access memory (MRAM).

Design/methodology/approach

Spintronics technology can be used as an alternative to CMOS technology as it is having comparatively low power dissipation, non-volatility, high density and high endurance. MTJ is the basic spin based device that stores data in form of electron spin instead of charge. Two mechanisms, namely, STT and SHE, are used to switch the magnetization of MTJ.

Findings

It is observed that the power consumption in DSHE based logic gates is 95.6% less than the STT based gates. DSHE-based write circuit consumes only 5.28 fJ energy per bit.

Originality/value

This paper describes how the DSHE-MRAM is more effective for implementing logic circuits in comparison to STT-MRAM.

1 – 10 of 309