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The article attempts to synthesise major developments in global retailing and presents a scenario of important global trends since the 1960s. Implications are also offered for international retailers.
Many US‐based franchisers have expanded into international marketsduring the past two decades. However, a vast majority is still confinedto the domestic market. Domestic…
Many US‐based franchisers have expanded into international markets during the past two decades. However, a vast majority is still confined to the domestic market. Domestic franchisers are focused on and their international outlook is examined. In particular, the reasons why most US franchisers have not extended internationally, the extent of their disposition towards overseas expansion, and the attributes associated with prospective future international franchisers are explored.
Several interesting events are taking place in the socio‐economic scene of India which may seriously affect the distribution system operating in an organisation. A…
Several interesting events are taking place in the socio‐economic scene of India which may seriously affect the distribution system operating in an organisation. A discerning marketing manager should be able to read the writing on the wall. For decades, the distribution channels in India, with respect to a large number of consumer and industrial goods, remained overcrowded with a variety of market middlemen. The environmental forces from various directions have already challenged the functioning of such conventional channels and shaken the existence of parasitic middlemen to whom the system offered a sort of social insurance. The channels are now getting shorter. The traditional gap between the manufacturer and consumer is being bridged. Pressures from several directions are paving the way for modification or major changes in the distribution channel of an individual firm.
Investigates the European retailing industry and how it is dominated by independent, small or medium‐sized downtown stores with a narrow focus. Shows that, in spite of their power and respect, the independent downtown retailers have not been able to block bigger or foreign retailers from entry, although other forces such as urbanization were also to blame. States that the big oil crisis of 1973 also had a deleterious affect, promoting severe recession, high inflation and high unemployment. Submits that many traditional small retailers could not survive this and closed down. Concludes that the downtown stores have, in many countries, enjoyed the political pull but are now facing a ‘change or quit’ policy. Acknowledges that there has been an increase in mail order buying and the use of computerized business systems in the Scandinavian countries, the UK, Benelux countries and Germany.
Levitt's theory of globalisation has attracted a great deal of attention among both academics and practitioners. The view that a single product can be offered worldwide…
Levitt's theory of globalisation has attracted a great deal of attention among both academics and practitioners. The view that a single product can be offered worldwide offers significant benefits for international marketers, whatever their size or industry. A review of empirical findings in the literature, however, suggests that this theory should be adopted with caution. The author has studied a specific group of three products manufactured by UK companies and exported to other countries in Europe. Despite the often cited term, European market, which implies a likeness between all European countries and, hence, an opportunity for product standardisation, the findings suggest that modifications in many product aspects are necessary for export success. Further, the degree of modification required varies from market to market.