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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Valeria Pulignano and Nadja Doerflinger

The purpose of this paper is to contribute conceptually to debate on labour market dualisation by proposing a macro-micro and micro-macro (or macro-micro-macro) analytical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute conceptually to debate on labour market dualisation by proposing a macro-micro and micro-macro (or macro-micro-macro) analytical approach to integrate actor-based explanations in the study of labour market dualisation.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper emphasising the need to combine qualitative and quantitative data and methods in studying the nature and incidence of labour market dualisation.

Findings

To study social divides – as a manifestation of labour market dualisation and, more generally, fragmentation – macro-micro and micro-macro (i.e. macro-micro-macro) relationships need to be established as part of an analytical approach to studying dualisation. This implies considering macro-level institutional and regulatory as well as micro-level workplace and organisational settings as factors in any analysis and interpretation of the determinants of labour market dualisation, i.e. integrating the dynamics of power and strategy as determinants of dualisation, fragmentation and more generally precariousness.

Originality/value

The paper points to the need to expand actor-based explanations within the labour market dualisation debate, which remains overly institutionalist in its approach. The authors propose a micro-macro-micro analytical approach as the way to systematise the study of concurrent macro-micro and micro-macro relationships shaping social divides in labour markets.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Emre Uzunoglu, Mehmet Ismet Can Dede and Gökhan Kiper

In the industry, there is always a demand to shorten the task completion durations to maximize the efficiency of the operation. This work focuses on making use of a…

Abstract

Purpose

In the industry, there is always a demand to shorten the task completion durations to maximize the efficiency of the operation. This work focuses on making use of a special type of kinematic redundancy, macro–micro manipulation, to minimize the task completion duration. The purpose of this paper is to develop the most convenient trajectory planner to be integrated with industrial computerized numerical control (CNC) systems to resolve kinematic redundancy for task duration minimization.

Design/methodology/approach

A special type of kinematic redundancy is devised by using two kinematically different mechanisms that have different advantages, which are named as macro and micro mechanisms. In this case, the control design including the trajectory planning should be devised taking into account the distinct advantages of both mechanisms. A new trajectory planning algorithm is designed and used for the constructed planar laser-cutting machine, and some benchmark pieces are cut.

Findings

Offline method has practical limitations for employment in a real case scenario such as assuming infinite jerk limits for each axis motion. This limitation was removed by using an online trajectory generation technique. Experimental test results indicate that the online trajectory planning technique developed for the macro–micro mechanism to shorten the task duration was successful.

Practical implications

Although the new trajectory planning algorithm is implemented for a laser-cutting machine, it can also be used for other manufacturing systems that require higher acceleration and accuracy levels than the conventional machines. The new algorithm is compatible with the commercially available CNC systems.

Originality/value

In this work, a new approach to reducing the task duration for planar machining operations was introduced by making use of macro–micro manipulation concept. The core novelty of the work is devising trajectory planning algorithms to get the most efficiency in terms of acceleration limits from a macro–micro manipulation while making these algorithms deployable to most of the CNC systems.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Anoop Kumar Sahu, Nitin Kumar Sahu, Atul Kumar Sahu, Harendra Kumar Narang and Mridul Singh Rajput

In the presented research, the authors have conducted the literature review and organised real interviews of fruit retailers (FRs) to construct the advanced hierarchical…

Abstract

Purpose

In the presented research, the authors have conducted the literature review and organised real interviews of fruit retailers (FRs) to construct the advanced hierarchical structural (AHS) chain of macro-micro parameters for measuring the performances of defined fruit supply bazaars (FSBs). Apart from this, the purpose of this paper is to develop the grey set-based scorecard model for solving the proposed AHS chain of macro-micro parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The performance of FSBs is linked with the supply of fruits towards clients under a feasible rate, which circuitously depends upon the evaluation of the economic locality of FSBs. The authors developed an advanced hierarchical structure of macro-micro parameters via a literature survey and considered these parameters based on the sampling score of FRs corresponding to select feasible FSBs/alternatives. Furthermore, the authors developed a grey set-based scorecard model for undertaking the incomplete information of FRs against the hierarchical structure.

Findings

It is found that the work is well suited for FRs as they can measure the performances of defined FSBs in accordance with their own opinions under the proposed AHS of macro-micro parameters. Apart from this, the work is useful for benchmarking the vegetable supply bazaars (VSBs) on the replacement of AHS. The proposed hierarchical structure with a grey-based scorecard model is flexible in its nature and can undertake more than 1,000 macro-micro parameters and FRs to access potential decision.

Originality/value

The conducted research work has a precise value for evaluating the economic FSB locality. The overall performance scores of considered FSB localities are computed as (∂1)=1.991, (∂2)=2.567 and (∂3)=2.855, where (∂3) is found to be more significant than available FSBs. This work can be used for opting the economic locality of VSB too.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2015

Jane D. McLeod, Tim Hallett and Kathryn J. Lively

We propose an elaboration of the social structure and personality framework from sociological social psychology that is intended to promote integration across social…

Abstract

Purpose

We propose an elaboration of the social structure and personality framework from sociological social psychology that is intended to promote integration across social psychological traditions and between social psychology and sociology, using the study of inequality as an example.

Methodology/approach

We develop a conceptualization of “generic” proximate processes that produce and reproduce inequality in face-to-face interaction: status, identity, and justice.

Findings

The elaborated framework suggests fundamental questions that analysts can pose about the macro-micro dynamics of inequality. These questions direct attention to the “how” and “why” of macro-micro relations by connecting structural and cultural systems, local contexts, and the lives of individual persons; highlighting implicit processes; making meaning central; and directing our attention to how people act efficaciously in the face of constraint.

Practical implications

Applying this framework, scholars can use existing theories and generate new ones, and can do so inductively or deductively.

Social implications

Research on inequality is enriched by social psychological analyses that draw on the full complement of relevant methods and theories.

Originality/value

We make visible the social psychological underpinnings of sociological research on inequality and provide a template for macro-micro analyses that emphasizes the centrality of social psychological processes.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-076-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

John Cockburn, Luc Savard and Luca Tiberti

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2008

Ben Q. Li

The aim of this paper is to determine a parallel computational methodology for simultaneously predicting the macro/micro scale phenomena occurring during solidification…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to determine a parallel computational methodology for simultaneously predicting the macro/micro scale phenomena occurring during solidification processing with external electromagnetic stirring.

Design/methodology/approach

Macro and micro phenomena occurring in an electromagnetically‐stirred solidifying melt are simulated using a numerical model that integrates the finite element methodology for transport phenomena and the Monte‐Carlo cellular‐automata method for microstructure formation. Parallel algorithm is introduced to enhance the computational efficiency.

Findings

Computed results show that parallel algorithm can be effective in enhancing the computational efficiency of a combined macro/micro model if it is applied appropriately. Also, electromagnetically induced stirring can have a strong effect on the nucleation and grain growth and hence the final solidification microstructure.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a need for developing an efficient numerical methodology to simulate complex electromagnetically‐assisted transport phenomena and microstructure formation during solidification processing systems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

C.Y. Yin, H. Lu, C. Bailey and Y.C. Chan

This paper discusses the use of modelling techniques to predict the reliability of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) flip chip in a humid environment. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper discusses the use of modelling techniques to predict the reliability of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) flip chip in a humid environment. The purpose of this modelling work is to understand the role that moisture plays in the failure of ACF flip chips.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3D macro‐micro finite element modelling technique was used to determine the moisture diffusion and moisture‐induced stresses inside the ACF flip chip.

Findings

The results show that the ACF layer in the flip chip can be expected to be fully saturated with moisture after 3 h at 121°C, 100%RH, 2 atm test conditions. The swelling effect of the adhesive due to this moisture absorption causes predominately tensile stress at the interface between the adhesive and the metallization, which could cause a decrease in the contact area, and therefore an increase in the contact resistance.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a macro‐micro modelling technique which enables more detailed 3D modelling analysis of an ACF flip chip than previously.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Lei Wang, Haijun Xia, Yaowen Yang, Yiru Cai and Zhiping Qiu

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel non-probabilistic reliability-based topology optimization (NRBTO) method for continuum structural design under interval…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel non-probabilistic reliability-based topology optimization (NRBTO) method for continuum structural design under interval uncertainties of load and material parameters based on the technology of 3D printing or additive manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the uncertainty quantification analysis is accomplished by interval Taylor extension to determine boundary rules of concerned displacement responses. Based on the interval interference theory, a novel reliability index, named as the optimization feature distance, is then introduced to construct non-probabilistic reliability constraints. To circumvent convergence difficulties in solving large-scale variable optimization problems, the gradient-based method of moving asymptotes is also used, in which the sensitivity expressions of the present reliability measurements with respect to design variables are deduced by combination of the adjoint vector scheme and interval mathematics.

Findings

The main findings of this paper should lie in that new non-probabilistic reliability index, i.e. the optimization feature distance which is defined and further incorporated in continuum topology optimization issues. Besides, a novel concurrent design strategy under consideration of macro-micro integration is presented by using the developed RBTO methodology.

Originality/value

Uncertainty propagation analysis based on the interval Taylor extension method is conducted. Novel reliability index of the optimization feature distance is defined. Expressions of the adjoint vectors between interval bounds of displacement responses and the relative density are deduced. New NRBTO method subjected to continuum structures is developed and further solved by MMA algorithms.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Derek J. Harmon

Institutions are built upon language. Although we have a number of linguistic perspectives already in our arsenal, this chapter seeks to convince you of our need for just…

Abstract

Institutions are built upon language. Although we have a number of linguistic perspectives already in our arsenal, this chapter seeks to convince you of our need for just one more. The primary claim is that because the structure of arguments uniquely maps onto the latent structure of institutions, the use of arguments in institutional analysis may help us gain more traction on three important topics – the nature taken-for-grantedness, the macro-micro divide, and the political dynamics of institutions. This chapter thus offers a starting point for how to use an argumentation perspective when studying institutions.

Details

Microfoundations of Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-127-8

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Arno Haslberger and Michael Dickmann

There has been tremendous interest in the field of cultural adjustment in the past decades. The work of Black and his colleagues has inspired many researchers. However…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been tremendous interest in the field of cultural adjustment in the past decades. The work of Black and his colleagues has inspired many researchers. However, critics have pointed out that their original conceptualization has limitations; most of the insights building on their model have probably been harvested. Therefore, it is appropriate to investigate alternative ways at understanding the challenges in international assignments. The purpose of this paper is to outline a model rooted in person-environment fit theory. The authors follow Dawis and Lofquist’s Theory of Work Adjustment, which has had only a small influence on expatriate research to date.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a correspondence model of cross-cultural adjustment and explores the diverse factors and their interactions in-depth. The satisfaction of individual needs and corresponding environmental supplies (macro, micro, and organizational factors) as well as the satisfactoriness of individual abilities and corresponding environmental requirements (macro, micro, and organizational) is outlined.

Findings

Based on the literature and the model a large number of hypotheses in relation to cross-cultural adjustment are proposed which allow new avenues in adjustment research.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is to propose a model that addresses the main criticisms to the adjustment conceptualization of Black and his colleagues.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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