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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2004

S B Kotsiantis and P E Pintelas

Machine Learning algorithms fed with data sets which include information such as attendance data, test scores and other student information can provide tutors with…

Abstract

Machine Learning algorithms fed with data sets which include information such as attendance data, test scores and other student information can provide tutors with powerful tools for decision‐making. Until now, much of the research has been limited to the relation between single variables and student performance. Combining multiple variables as possible predictors of dropout has generally been overlooked. The aim of this work is to present a high level architecture and a case study for a prototype machine learning tool which can automatically recognize dropout‐prone students in university level distance learning classes. Tracking student progress is a time‐consuming job which can be handled automatically by such a tool. While the tutors will still have an essential role in monitoring and evaluating student progress, the tool can compile the data required for reasonable and efficient monitoring. What is more, the application of the tool is not restricted to predicting drop‐out prone students: it can be also used for the prediction of students’ marks, for the prediction of how many students will submit a written assignment, etc. It can also help tutors explore data and build models for prediction, forecasting and classification. Finally, the underlying architecture is independent of the data set and as such it can be used to develop other similar tools

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Brett Lantz

Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) have arisen as the availability of larger data sources, statistical methods, and computing power have rapidly and

Abstract

Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) have arisen as the availability of larger data sources, statistical methods, and computing power have rapidly and simultaneously evolved. The transformation is leading to a revolution that will affect virtually every industry. Businesses that are slow to adopt modern data practices are likely to be left behind with little chance to catch up.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of machine learning and AI in the business setting. In addition to providing historical context, the chapter also provides justification for AI investment, even in industries in which data is not the core business function. The means by which computers learn is de-mystified and various algorithms and evaluation methods are presented. Lastly, the chapter considers various ethical and practical consequences of machine learning algorithms after implementation.

Details

The Machine Age of Customer Insight
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-697-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Gauri Rajendra Virkar and Supriya Sunil Shinde

Predictive analytics is the science of decision-making that eliminates guesswork out of the decision-making process and applies proven scientific procedures to find right…

Abstract

Predictive analytics is the science of decision-making that eliminates guesswork out of the decision-making process and applies proven scientific procedures to find right solutions. Predictive analytics provides ideas on the occurrences of future downtimes and rejections thereby aids in taking preventive actions before abnormalities occur. Considering these advantages, predictive analytics is adopted in various diverse fields such as health care, finance, education, marketing, automotive, etc. Predictive analytics tools can be used to predict various behaviors and patterns, thereby saving the time and money of its users. Many open-source predictive analysis tools namely R, scikit-learn, Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME), Orange, RapidMiner, Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA), etc. are freely available for the users. This chapter aims to reveal the best accurate tools and techniques for the classification task that aid in decision-making. Our experimental results show that no specific tool provides the best results in all scenarios; rather it depends upon the datasets and the classifier.

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Meseret Getnet Meharie, Wubshet Jekale Mengesha, Zachary Abiero Gariy and Raphael N.N. Mutuku

The purpose of this study to apply stacking ensemble machine learning algorithm for predicting the cost of highway construction projects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study to apply stacking ensemble machine learning algorithm for predicting the cost of highway construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed stacking ensemble model was developed by combining three distinct base predictive models automatically and optimally: linear regression, support vector machine and artificial neural network models using gradient boosting algorithm as meta-regressor.

Findings

The findings reveal that the proposed model predicted the final project cost with a very small prediction error value. This implies that the difference between predicted and actual cost was quite small. A comparison of the results of the models revealed that in all performance metrics, the stacking ensemble model outperforms the sole ones. The stacking ensemble cost model produces 86.8, 87.8 and 5.6 percent more accurate results than linear regression, vector machine support, and neural network models, respectively, based on the root mean square error values.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows how stacking ensemble machine learning algorithm applies to predict the cost of construction projects. The estimators or practitioners can use the new model as an effectual and reliable tool for predicting the cost of Ethiopian highway construction projects at the preliminary stage.

Originality/value

The study provides insight into the machine learning algorithm application in forecasting the cost of future highway construction projects in Ethiopia.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Mirpouya Mirmozaffari, Elham Shadkam, Seyyed Mohammad Khalili, Kamyar Kabirifar, Reza Yazdani and Tayyebeh Asgari Gashteroodkhani

Cement as one of the major components of construction activities, releases a tremendous amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, resulting in adverse…

Abstract

Purpose

Cement as one of the major components of construction activities, releases a tremendous amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, resulting in adverse environmental impacts and high energy consumption. Increasing demand for CO2 consumption has urged construction companies and decision-makers to consider ecological efficiency affected by CO2 consumption. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a method capable of analyzing and assessing the eco-efficiency determining factor in Iran’s 22 local cement companies over 2015–2019.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses two well-known artificial intelligence approaches, namely, optimization data envelopment analysis (DEA) and machine learning algorithms at the first and second steps, respectively, to fulfill the research aim. Meanwhile, to find the superior model, the CCR model, BBC model and additive DEA models to measure the efficiency of decision processes are used. A proportional decreasing or increasing of inputs/outputs is the main concern in measuring efficiency which neglect slacks, and hence, is a critical limitation of radial models. Thus, the additive model by considering desirable and undesirable outputs, as a well-known DEA non-proportional and non-radial model, is used to solve the problem. Additive models measure efficiency via slack variables. Considering both input-oriented and output-oriented is one of the main advantages of the additive model.

Findings

After applying the proposed model, the Malmquist productivity index is computed to evaluate the productivity of companies over 2015–2019. Although DEA is an appreciated method for evaluating, it fails to extract unknown information. Thus, machine learning algorithms play an important role in this step. Association rules are used to extract hidden rules and to introduce the three strongest rules. Finally, three data mining classification algorithms in three different tools have been applied to introduce the superior algorithm and tool. A new converting two-stage to single-stage model is proposed to obtain the eco-efficiency of the whole system. This model is proposed to fix the efficiency of a two-stage process and prevent the dependency on various weights. Converting undesirable outputs and desirable inputs to final desirable inputs in a single-stage model to minimize inputs, as well as turning desirable outputs to final desirable outputs in the single-stage model to maximize outputs to have a positive effect on the efficiency of the whole process.

Originality/value

The performance of the proposed approach provides us with a chance to recognize pattern recognition of the whole, combining DEA and data mining techniques during the selected period (five years from 2015 to 2019). Meanwhile, the cement industry is one of the foremost manufacturers of naturally harmful material using an undesirable by-product; specific stress is given to that pollution control investment or undesirable output while evaluating energy use efficiency. The significant concentration of the study is to respond to five preliminary questions.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Eric Pettersson Ruiz and Jannis Angelis

This study aims to explore how to deanonymize cryptocurrency money launderers with the help of machine learning (ML). Money is laundered through cryptocurrencies by…

2818

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how to deanonymize cryptocurrency money launderers with the help of machine learning (ML). Money is laundered through cryptocurrencies by distributing funds to multiple accounts and then reexchanging the crypto back. This process of exchanging currencies is done through cryptocurrency exchanges. Current preventive efforts are outdated, and ML may provide novel ways to identify illicit currency movements. Hence, this study investigates ML applicability for combatting money laundering activities using cryptocurrency.

Design/methodology/approach

Four supervised-learning algorithms were compared using the Bitcoin Elliptic Dataset. The method covered a quantitative analysis of the algorithmic performance, capturing differences in three key evaluation metrics of F1-scores, precision and recall. Two complementary qualitative interviews were performed at cryptocurrency exchanges to identify fit and applicability of the algorithms.

Findings

The study results show that the current implemented ML tools for preventing money laundering at cryptocurrency exchanges are all too slow and need to be optimized for the task. The results also show that while not one single algorithm is most suitable for detecting transactions related to money-laundering, the specific applicability of the decision tree algorithm is most suitable for adoption by cryptocurrency exchanges.

Originality/value

Given the growth of cryptocurrency use, this study explores the newly developed field of algorithmic tools to combat illicit currency movement, in particular in the growing arena of cryptocurrencies. The study results provide new insights into the applicability of ML as a tool to combat money laundering using cryptocurrency exchanges.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Simone Massulini Acosta and Angelo Marcio Oliveira Sant'Anna

Process monitoring is a way to manage the quality characteristics of products in manufacturing processes. Several process monitoring based on machine learning algorithms

Abstract

Purpose

Process monitoring is a way to manage the quality characteristics of products in manufacturing processes. Several process monitoring based on machine learning algorithms have been proposed in the literature and have gained the attention of many researchers. In this paper, the authors developed machine learning-based control charts for monitoring fraction non-conforming products in smart manufacturing. This study proposed a relevance vector machine using Bayesian sparse kernel optimized by differential evolution algorithm for efficient monitoring in manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

A new approach was carried out about data analysis, modelling and monitoring in the manufacturing industry. This study developed a relevance vector machine using Bayesian sparse kernel technique to improve the support vector machine used to both regression and classification problems. The authors compared the performance of proposed relevance vector machine with other machine learning algorithms, such as support vector machine, artificial neural network and beta regression model. The proposed approach was evaluated by different shift scenarios of average run length using Monte Carlo simulation.

Findings

The authors analyse a real case study in a manufacturing company, based on best machine learning algorithms. The results indicate that proposed relevance vector machine-based process monitoring are excellent quality tools for monitoring defective products in manufacturing process. A comparative analysis with four machine learning models is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The relevance vector machine has slightly better performance than support vector machine, artificial neural network and beta models.

Originality/value

This research is different from the others by providing approaches for monitoring defective products. Machine learning-based control charts are used to monitor product failures in smart manufacturing process. Besides, the key contribution of this study is to develop different models for fault detection and to identify any change point in the manufacturing process. Moreover, the authors’ research indicates that machine learning models are adequate tools for the modelling and monitoring of the fraction non-conforming product in the industrial process.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Rajshree Varma, Yugandhara Verma, Priya Vijayvargiya and Prathamesh P. Churi

The rapid advancement of technology in online communication and fingertip access to the Internet has resulted in the expedited dissemination of fake news to engage a…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid advancement of technology in online communication and fingertip access to the Internet has resulted in the expedited dissemination of fake news to engage a global audience at a low cost by news channels, freelance reporters and websites. Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, individuals are inflicted with these false and potentially harmful claims and stories, which may harm the vaccination process. Psychological studies reveal that the human ability to detect deception is only slightly better than chance; therefore, there is a growing need for serious consideration for developing automated strategies to combat fake news that traverses these platforms at an alarming rate. This paper systematically reviews the existing fake news detection technologies by exploring various machine learning and deep learning techniques pre- and post-pandemic, which has never been done before to the best of the authors’ knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The detailed literature review on fake news detection is divided into three major parts. The authors searched papers no later than 2017 on fake news detection approaches on deep learning and machine learning. The papers were initially searched through the Google scholar platform, and they have been scrutinized for quality. The authors kept “Scopus” and “Web of Science” as quality indexing parameters. All research gaps and available databases, data pre-processing, feature extraction techniques and evaluation methods for current fake news detection technologies have been explored, illustrating them using tables, charts and trees.

Findings

The paper is dissected into two approaches, namely machine learning and deep learning, to present a better understanding and a clear objective. Next, the authors present a viewpoint on which approach is better and future research trends, issues and challenges for researchers, given the relevance and urgency of a detailed and thorough analysis of existing models. This paper also delves into fake new detection during COVID-19, and it can be inferred that research and modeling are shifting toward the use of ensemble approaches.

Originality/value

The study also identifies several novel automated web-based approaches used by researchers to assess the validity of pandemic news that have proven to be successful, although currently reported accuracy has not yet reached consistent levels in the real world.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Mehdi Abedi, Hany Seidgar and Hamed Fazlollahtabar

The purpose of this paper is to present a new mathematical model for the unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem with aging effects and multi-maintenance activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new mathematical model for the unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem with aging effects and multi-maintenance activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assume that each machine may be subject to several maintenance activities over the scheduling horizon and a machine turn into its initial condition after maintenance activity and the aging effects start anew. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of early/tardy times of jobs and maintenance costs.

Findings

As this problem is proven to be non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard), the authors employed imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and genetic algorithm (GA) as solution approaches, and the parameters of the proposed algorithms are calibrated by a novel parameter tuning tool called Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The computational results clarify that GA performs better than ICA in quality of solutions and computational time.

Originality/value

Predictive maintenance (PM) activities carry out the operations on machines and tools before the breakdown takes place and it helps to prevent failures before they happen.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Samrakshya Karki and Bonaventura Hadikusumo

Project manager’s competency is crucial in the construction sector for the successful completion of projects, particularly in the case of developing countries like Nepal…

Abstract

Purpose

Project manager’s competency is crucial in the construction sector for the successful completion of projects, particularly in the case of developing countries like Nepal. Therefore, it is very essential to select competent project managers by finding the competency factors required by them. Hence, this study aims to identify the characteristics of competent project managers by expert opinion method and to evaluate their competency level by a questionnaire survey to develop a prediction model using a supervised machine learning approach via Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA), a machine learning tool which predicts Project manager’s performance as “Higher than expected,” “Expected” or “Lower than expected” for the medium complexity construction projects of Nepal (from US$200,000 up to US$10M).

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection procedure for this research is based on an expert opinion method and survey. Expert opinion method is conducted to find the characteristics of a competent project manager by validating the top 15 competency factors based on literature review. The survey is conducted with the top management to assess their project manager’s competency level. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are used to collect data for classification and prediction in WEKA, a machine learning tool.

Findings

The results illustrate that the project managers in Nepal have a high score in leadership skills, personal characteristics, team development and delegation, communication skills, technical skills, problem-solving/coping with situation skills and stakeholder/relationship management skills. Furthermore, among the seven classifiers (naïve Bayes, sequential minimal optimization [SMO], multilayer perceptron, logistic, KStar, J48 and random forest), the accuracy given by the SMO algorithm is highest of all in both the percentage split and k-folds cross validation method. The model developed using SMO classifier by k-folds cross-validation (k = 10) is acknowledged as a final model.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses to develop a prediction model to predict and analyze the competency of project managers by applying a supervised machine learning approach. Seven extensively used algorithms (Naïve Bayes, SMO, multilayer perceptron, logistic, KStar, J48, random forest) are used to check the accuracy of models and an algorithm that gives the highest accuracy is adopted. Data collection for this research is carried out by expert opinion method to validate the characteristics (factors) essential for competent project managers in the first round and the description of each factor as high, medium and low is inquired with the same experts in the second round. After an expert opinion, a structured questionnaire is prepared for the survey to assess the competency level of project managers (PMs). The competency level of PMs working under government funded, foreign aided or private projects from the contractor’s side is measured. This research is limited to the medium scale construction projects of Nepal.

Practical implications

This model can be a huge asset in the human resource department of construction companies as it helps to know the performance level of project managers in terms of “Higher than expected,” “Expected” or “Lower than expected” for the medium complexity construction projects of Nepal. Also, the model will assist human intelligence to make the decision while recruiting a new project manager/s for different types of projects at a time. Moreover, the model can be used for self-assessment of project manager/s to know their performance level. The model can be used to develop a user friendly interface system or an application such that it can be conveniently used anywhere any time.

Social implications

This research shows that most of the project managers working in a medium complexity construction project of Nepal are male, maximum of them hold bachelor’s degree and study for road projects. Furthermore, most of the project managers scored high in leadership skills, personal characteristics, communication skills, technical skills, problem-solving/coping with situation skills, team development and delegation and stakeholder/relationship management skills. The model has given the “Personal characteristics” attribute the highest weightage. Likewise, other attributes having high weightage are communication skills, analytical abilities, project budget, stakeholder/relationship management, team development and delegation and time management skills.

Originality/value

This research was conducted to find the competency factors and to study the competency level of project managers in Nepal to develop a prediction model to predict the PM’s performance using a machine learning approach in medium scale construction projects. There is a lack of research to develop a model that predicts project manager’s competency using the machine learning approach. Therefore, the predictive model developed here helps in the identification of a competent project manager as it will be advantageous for project completion with a high success rate.

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