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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Derek W. Dalton

While Dalton and Radtke (2013) examine the effects of Machiavellianism and an organization's ethical environment within a low moral intensity setting, I examine the…

Abstract

While Dalton and Radtke (2013) examine the effects of Machiavellianism and an organization's ethical environment within a low moral intensity setting, I examine the effects of Machiavellianism and an organization's ethical environment across both low and high moral intensity settings. Using a sample of 192 MTurk workers (i.e., online labor pool participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk) and 127 undergraduate accounting students, the results using the full-sample of participants indicate the following: (1) Machiavellianism is negatively associated with whistle-blowing intentions across both low and high moral intensity scenarios; (2) an organization's ethical environment is positively associated with whistle-blowing intentions across both low and high moral intensity scenarios; and (3) in the low moral intensity scenario (but not the high moral intensity scenario), I find an interaction between Machiavellianism and the strength of the ethical environment. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

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Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-013-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Janice Baker Corzine, Gabriel F. Buntzman and Edgar T. Busch

This study examined relationships involving Machiavellianism, the career plateau, job satisfaction and salary in a sample of commercial bank officers in the United States…

Abstract

This study examined relationships involving Machiavellianism, the career plateau, job satisfaction and salary in a sample of commercial bank officers in the United States. Results showed that American bankers had relatively low Machiavellianism scores compared to scores reported for other groups. While a negative relationship between job satisfaction and Machiavellianism was found, there was no association between salary and Machiavellianism. Those who scored high on Machiavellianism were more likely to believe that they had reached a career plateau than were those who scored low. Some results are explained in the context of the U.S. banking industry environment.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Hakan Erkutlu and Jamel Chafra

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and employee’s quiescent silence…

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3394

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and employee’s quiescent silence. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing employee’s relational identification as the mediator. The moderating role of psychological distance in the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and quiescent silence is also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from nine universities in Turkey. The sample included 793 randomly chosen faculty members along with their department chairs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model.

Findings

The results of this study supported the positive effect of leader Machiavellianism on employee’s quiescent silence as well as the mediating effect of employee’s relational identification. Moreover, when the level of psychological distance is low, the relationship between leader Machiavellianism and quiescent silence is strong, whereas the effect is weak when the level of psychological distance is high.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that educational administrators in the higher education should be sensitive in treating their subordinates, as it will lead to positive interpersonal relationship, which, in turn, will reduce workplace silence. Moreover, they should pay more attention to the buffering role of psychological distance for those subordinates with high distrust and showing silence.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on organizational silence by revealing the relational mechanism between leader Machiavellianism and employee quiescent silence. The paper also offers a practical assistance to employees in the higher education and their leaders interested in building trust, increasing leader–employee relationship and reducing workplace silence.

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European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8494

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

William E. Shafer and Richard S. Simmons

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of attitudes toward the perceived importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, and Machiavellianism, a…

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8950

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of attitudes toward the perceived importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, and Machiavellianism, a general measure of the propensity for manipulative and deceitful behaviour, on tax professionals' willingness to participate in aggressive tax avoidance schemes of corporate clients.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a survey of tax professionals in Hong Kong.

Findings

The paper finds that Machiavellianism affects tax advisors' expressed viewpoints toward the importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, which affect professional judgements toward aggressive tax minimisation. As anticipated, high Machiavellians are more likely to endorse the traditional “stockholder view” of corporate responsibility (which holds that corporations have little responsibility beyond maximising their profits), and less likely to support the “stakeholder view” (which recognises corporate responsibilities to a broader range of potential stakeholders). The stockholder view (but not the stakeholder view) of corporate responsibility mediates the relationship between Machiavellianism and ethical/social responsibility judgements. Machiavellianism also had significant direct effects on ethical and social responsibility judgements.

Originality/value

The paper provides insights into the decision processes used to justify aggressive tax minimisation strategies. The findings indicate that commonly articulated views toward corporate ethics and social responsibility may be used to support unethical strategies. In particular, the finding that the stockholder view mediates the relationship between Machiavellianism and ethical/social responsibility judgements suggests that the stockholder view may be adopted to rationalise overly aggressive tax avoidance.

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Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Alif Maggalatta and Desi Adhariani

The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of love of money and Machiavellianism on ethics perceptions of accounting students. The knowledge attained from this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of love of money and Machiavellianism on ethics perceptions of accounting students. The knowledge attained from this study will allow lecturers and academicians to improve the methods used for teaching ethics in accounting by evaluating the impact of two factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses survey and quantitative analysis. The data were collected by distributing offline and online questionnaires to students in a university in Indonesia.

Findings

The results show that both the love of money and Machiavellianism negatively affect ethical perception. Gender as one of the control variables is found to have a significant association with the love of money, Machiavellianism and ethical perception of accounting students.

Research limitations/implications

The practical implication of the research is the need to inform students on the negative impact of the love of money and Machiavellianism on ethics, as well as the required steps to overcome such negative impact by inserting ethics-related materials in several accounting courses.

Originality/value

Accounting students represent future accountants and highly ethical accountants will protect the profession and society from harmful consequences of unethical accounting and business practices.

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Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Katja Stradovnik and Janez Stare

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of Machiavellian leadership and organisational cynicism on the emotional exhaustion of employees.

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1424

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of Machiavellian leadership and organisational cynicism on the emotional exhaustion of employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 463 employees of Slovenian municipalities. Surveys were used to collect Machiavellianism, organisational cynicism and emotional exhaustion data. Hypotheses were verified by means of three methods: the contingency table, χ2 test and Pearson coefficient.

Findings

Machiavellian leadership has an impact both on the presence of emotional exhaustion and organisational cynicism. According to the results, both Machiavellianism and organisational cynicism have a direct linear impact on the increase of emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the research were formulated on the basis of a survey conducted according to a self-assessment online survey.

Originality/value

Even though the concept of Machiavellianism was developed 500 years ago, the existing literature suggests that it continues to be relevant in modern times, most frequently in terms of examining the way leaders establish their power and adopt (un)ethical leadership practices and the implications their behaviour has on their direct working environment. Only select authors have examined Machiavellianism in correlation with organisational cynicism and emotional exhaustion, with an emphasis on the public sector. Due to a lack of research conducted on the subject, the main research challenge was to establish actual correlations between the three factors above.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

David Shackleton, Leyland Pitt and Amy Seidel Marks

Decision styles and Machiavellianism were studied among four groupsof managers in pharmaceutical companies. Using a Decision StylesInventory, directive, analytic…

Abstract

Decision styles and Machiavellianism were studied among four groups of managers in pharmaceutical companies. Using a Decision Styles Inventory, directive, analytic, conceptual and behavioural decision styles were studied, each representing a different combination of cognitive complexity and brain hemisphere preference in decision making. Machiavellianism was assessed using the Mach IV scale of Christie and Geiss (1970) and its components, namely, tactics, views and morality. The sample studied comprised 39 marketing, 23 financial, 35 medical and 21 operations managers. No significant interdependence was found between decision style, Machiavellianism and managerial group. Further research is recommended to investigate differences in decision style between managers and non‐managers, and to establish the effects of Machiavellianism in the workplace.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga, Charles Omagor and Irene Nalukenge

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the fraud triangle, Machiavellianism, academic misconduct and corporate social responsibility (CSR) proclivity of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the fraud triangle, Machiavellianism, academic misconduct and corporate social responsibility (CSR) proclivity of students.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study surveyed 471 university students. The study was cross-sectional and employed structural equation modelling in statistical modelling.

Findings

The study provides evidence that perceived opportunity to cheat in examinations is the single most important factor accounting for significant variations in rationalization and academic misconduct. Similarly, low Machiavellians significantly get inclined to CSR ideals. The fraud triangle alone accounts for 36 per cent of the variations in academic misconduct, hence the error variance is 64 per cent of academic misconduct itself. This error variance increases to 78 per cent when a combination of perceived opportunity, rationalization, Machiavellianism is considered. Moreover, both Machiavellianism and academic misconduct account for 17 per cent of variations in students’ proclivity to CSR ideals.

Research limitations/implications

Results imply that creating a setting that significantly increases a student's anticipated negative affect from academic misconduct, or effectively impedes rationalization ex ante, might prevent some students from academic misconduct in the first place and then they will become good African corporate citizens. Nevertheless, although the unit of analysis was students, these were from a single university – something akin to a case study. The quantitative results should therefore be interpreted with this shortcoming in mind.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the search for predictors of academic misconduct in the African setting and as a corollary, for a theory explaining academic misconduct. Those students perceiving opportunity to cheat in examinations are also able to rationalize and hence engage in academic misconduct. This rationalization is enhanced or reduced through Machiavellianism.

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Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Syed Imad Shah, Asad Shahjehan and Bilal Afsar

Studies highlighting negative behavioral influences of Machiavellians are plentiful; however, those prescribing their management are scarce. Machiavellians are…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies highlighting negative behavioral influences of Machiavellians are plentiful; however, those prescribing their management are scarce. Machiavellians are intelligent, adaptable and resourceful people with negative, self-serving and unethical persona traits. Their abundance in organizations poses a challenge for managers in minimizing negative consequences of Machiavellian's manipulative behaviors and tap into their true potential. Leadership can play a crucial role in this regard. This purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of transformational leadership (TFL) versus transactional leadership (TSL) styles on the relationship between subordinates' Machiavellianism and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The aim was to highlight the style that better adept in managing high-Mach subordinates.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study used multiple surveys administered to 90 managers and their 269 subordinates from 56 organizations. Multiple regression was used for testing and hypothesize linear and supplementary nonlinear relationships between the study variables.

Findings

After a detailed data analysis, authors posit that, as compared to TFL, the TSL style is better suited for managing Machiavellian subordinates.

Practical implications

By employing transactional tactics, leaders can reign in the divergent behavior of Machiavellians, thus, transforming them into useful organizational assets.

Originality/value

This study expands on limited body of knowledge on managing Machiavellians. It advocates using TSL for improving the OCB of Machiavellians while countering their CWBs. Furthermore, this study contributes to transactional/transformational theories as it lends credence to the situational theory of leadership.

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Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2021

Hakan Erkutlu and Jamel Chafra

This study aims to build a moderated mediation model to investigate the roles that trust in the leader and follower Machiavellianism can play in the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to build a moderated mediation model to investigate the roles that trust in the leader and follower Machiavellianism can play in the relationship between moral disengagement of the leader and hiding of knowledge of the followers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from eight universities in Turkey using a set of 72 matched leader (dean)–follower (faculty member) questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multiple regression, moderated regression and bootstrapping analyses.

Findings

The findings reveal that leader moral disengagement positively influences follower knowledge hiding, while trust in the leader mediates this influence and follower Machiavellianism not only moderates the relationship between leader moral disengagement and trust in the leader but also reduces the indirect relationship between leader moral disengagement and follower knowledge hiding through trust in the leader.

Research limitations/implications

Even though measurements of research variables were collected from different sources and with time separation, common method bias might have existed. Also, this research is carried out in a single cultural context posing the issue of the generalizability of our findings to other cultural contexts.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is to construct and investigate a conceptual model that focuses on the possible effect of moral disengagement of the leader on knowledge hiding by the followers. Also, by supporting the mediating role of trust in the leader, this research reveals that followers of leaders with high moral disengagement are more prone to indulge in the hiding of knowledge. Moreover, the moderating role of follower Machiavellianism, found in this study, provides an additional understanding that followers may vary in the degree to which they are sensitive to the leader's influence.

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Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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