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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Haiwei Zhu, Hongfa Yu, Haiyan Ma, Bo Da and Qiquan Mei

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine environments and ultimately to provide basis and recommendations for the durability design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Slag concrete specimens mixed with four kinds of rust inhibitors and coated with four kinds of surface strengthening materials were corroded by seawater exposure for 365 days, and the key parameters of chloride ion diffusion were obtained by testing. Then a new service life prediction model, based on the modified model for chloride ion diffusion and reliability theory, was applied to analyze the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine environments.

Findings

Rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials can effectively extend the service life of RC structures through different effects on chloride ion diffusion behavior. The effects of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life extension of RC structures adhered to the following trend: silane material > cement-based permeable crystalline waterproof material > hydrophobic plug compound > spray polyurea elastomer > water-based permeable crystalline waterproof material > calcium nitrite > preservative > amino-alcohol composite.

Originality/value

Using a new method for predicting the service life of RC structures, the attenuation law of the service life of RC structures under the action of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials in tropical marine environments is obtained.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2018

Bo Da, Hongfa Yu, Haiyan Ma and Zhangyu Wu

This paper aims to reduce the cost, limit the time and increase raw material source availability, coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) composed of coral, coral sand…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reduce the cost, limit the time and increase raw material source availability, coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) composed of coral, coral sand, seawater and cement can be widely used for the construction of ports, levees, airports and roads to achieve practical engineering values. However, the naturally porous coral structure and abundant Cl in the seawater and coral lead to extremely severe reinforcement corrosion for CASC. It is well known that Cl is the main cause of reinforcement corrosion in the marine environment. Therefore, it is necessary to research the reinforcement corrosion of CASC in the marine environment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, linear polarization resistance was adopted to test the linear polarization curves of reinforcement in CASC with different exposure times. Ecorr, Rp, Icorr and Vcorr were calculated according to the weak electrochemical polarization theory and Stern–Geary formula. The effects of concrete cover thickness, exposure time, reinforcement types and inhibitor on reinforcement corrosion in CASC were analysed. The reinforcement corrosion degradation rule was determined, which provided theoretical support for the durability improvement, security assessment, service life prediction and service quality control of CASC structures in marine islands and reef engineering.

Findings

The corrosion resistance was enhanced with increased concrete cover thickness, and the concrete cover thickness for organic new coated steel should be at least 5.5 cm to reduce the reinforcement corrosion risks in CASC structures. The corrosion resistance of different types of reinforcements followed the rule: 2205 duplex stainless steel > 316 stainless steel > organic new coated steel > zinc-chromium coated steel > common steel. In the early exposure stage, the anti-corrosion effectiveness of the calcium nitrate inhibitor (CN) was superior to that for the amino alcohol inhibitor (AA). With the extension of exposure time, the decreasing rate of anticorrosion effectiveness of CN was higher than that of AA.

Originality/value

Reinforcement corrosion of CASC in a marine environment was studied. Concrete cover thickness, exposure time, reinforcement type and inhibitor influenced the reinforcement corrosion were investigated. New technique of reinforcement anti-corrosion in marine engineering was proposed. Possible applications of CASC in marine engineering structures were suggested.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Zhangyu Wu, Hongfa Yu, Haiyan Ma, Bo Da and Yongshan Tan

Coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) is a new type of lightweight aggregate concrete that is becoming widely used in reef engineering. To investigate the corrosion…

Abstract

Purpose

Coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) is a new type of lightweight aggregate concrete that is becoming widely used in reef engineering. To investigate the corrosion behavior of different kinds of rebar in CASC exposed to simulated seawater for 0-270 d, the electrochemical techniques, including linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were used in the present work.

Design/methodology/approach

The electrochemical techniques, including LPR technique and the EIS, were used in the present work.

Findings

Based on the time-varying law of linear polarization curves, self-corrosion potential (Ecorr), polarization resistance (Rp), corrosion current density (Icorr), corrosion rate (i), and the characteristics of EIS diagrams for different types of rebar in CASC, it can be found that the anti-corrosion property of them can be ranked as epoxy resin coated steel > 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205S) > 316 L stainless steel (316 L) > organic coated steel > ordinary steel. Additionally, the linear regression equation between Rp and charge transfer resistance (Rct) was established. Finally, the EIS corrosion standard of rebar was established from the LPR corrosion standard, which provides a direct standard for the EIS technique to determine the condition of rebar in CASC.

Originality/value

The linear regression equation between polarization resistance and charge transfer resistance was established. And the EIS corrosion standard of rebar was established from the LPR corrosion standard, which provides a direct standard for the EIS technique to determine the condition of rebar in CASC.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Liu Linqing, Tan Liwen and Ma Haiyan

Massive increases in international trade and investment extend industries beyond national borders, so states and enterprises have become the two critical players in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Massive increases in international trade and investment extend industries beyond national borders, so states and enterprises have become the two critical players in the boundary of industries. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new conceptual framework to analyze the role of states and enterprises in enhancing the industrial international competitiveness (IIC).

Design/methodology/approach

Being a research‐based paper, the topic is approached by theoretical analysis and conceptual development. The paper reviews IIC literature and argues for a rational study ICC in the context of global value chain. Next, the paper puts forward a two‐dimensional governance model and five typical governance systems of the industries of developing countries. Examples of typical governance system are given based the practice of Chinese industries, such as appeal, rare earths, automotive, etc.

Findings

This paper constructs an industrial two‐dimensional governance model of the developing countries in the context of global value chain based on the interaction between industry governance and market governance, and also presents five typical governance systems – free to market, public governance, industrial governance, joint governance and network governance. Different governance system reflects different roles of states and enterprises played in the global value chains and result in different IIC in the end.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation is based primarily on methodology. The two‐dimensional governance model provides target‐oriented guidance for foresting international competitiveness of different types of industries. Future studies should include more in‐depth case studies on different governance system.

Originality/value

The paper presents a framework of the industrial two‐dimensional governance model, which emphasizes the important role of both states and enterprise in the IIC in the context of global value chain.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Liezel Longboan

Studies which look at disaster affected people’s use of communications technologies often fail to take into account people’s communication rights in their analyses…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies which look at disaster affected people’s use of communications technologies often fail to take into account people’s communication rights in their analyses, particularly their right to freedom of expression. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this issue by exploring the link between freedom of expression, community participation and disaster risk reduction in the use of digital feedback channels offered by aid and government agencies in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan.

Design/methodology/approach

Ethnographic fieldwork was undertaken in the Philippines between 2014 and 2015 in Tacloban City and Sabay Island, both in the Visayas, which have been affected by Typhoon Haiyan. A total of 101 in-depth interviews were conducted with affected people, local and national officials, community leaders, civil society groups, telecommunications companies and humanitarian agencies.

Findings

The interviews reveal that majority of disaster-affected Filipinos chose not to engage with formal feedback platforms offered by government and aid agencies out of fear of giving critical feedback to those in authority. They were concerned about the possibility of losing their entitlement to aid, of being reprimanded by government officers, and of the threat to their lives and of their loved ones if they expressed criticism to the government’s recovery efforts. Nonetheless, 15 per cent used backchannels while 10 per cent availed of the formal means to express their views about the recovery.

Research limitations/implications

The paper sought to draw links between people’s lack of engagement with the formal feedback mechanisms offered by government and aid agencies in the wake of Haiyan and the restrictive sociopolitical environment in the Philippines. Further research could be undertaken to examine how freedom of expression plays a role in disaster prevention and mitigation. Research into this area could potentially provide concrete steps to help prevent the occurrence of disasters and mitigate their impacts.

Originality/value

Freedom of expression and its place in disaster risk reduction is rarely explored in disaster studies. The paper addresses this oversight by examining the lack of engagement by communities affected by Haiyan with digital feedback channels provided by aid agencies and government. The findings suggest that despite the provisions for community participation in DRR under the Philippine Disaster Law, people are prevented to express criticism and dissent which puts into question the spirit and purpose of the law.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Ginbert Permejo Cuaton

Although half a decade have already passed following the devastation of super typhoon Haiyan in November 2013, limited studies on the status of the seaweed aquaculture…

Abstract

Purpose

Although half a decade have already passed following the devastation of super typhoon Haiyan in November 2013, limited studies on the status of the seaweed aquaculture industry have been reportedly published, specifically on the gendered differences of the key players in the production activities. The purpose of this empirical research is to present the different characteristics of producers; technology used in farming; gendered differences in labor; sources of propagules; and yield, productivity and income of seaweed farmers in five rural-poor coastal communities in Eastern Samar, the Philippines.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered through a combination of fieldworks and desk research and were analyzed using a value chain and gender needs assessment analyses. A four-part, self-made guide questionnaire was used as an instrument. The data were presented and analyzed using thematic analysis.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the modified monoline method is the technology used by the seaweed farmers. Propagules are usually supplied for free by the BFAR or bought from neighboring villages. A monthly income of PhP 19,500.00 (US$393.00) can be generated from seaweed farming. Division of labors in most of the seaweed production processes is equally distributed between men and women with help from their boys-and-girls children. Increasing further the number of lines per seaweed grower to at least 25 will enable them to go beyond the poverty threshold, based on 2015 figures of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA).

Research limitations/implications

This study provides additional empirical data to substantiate and prove that women’s active involvement in seaweed production provides them an important opportunity to earn some income for themselves and their families and contribute to livelihood and enterprise development in their communities.

Practical implications

This study is helpful in constructing an Industry Development Plan to serve as the Seaweed Industry Road Map for progress, thereby, helping men and women seaweed growers especially in rural-poor coastal areas.

Social implications

Aside from being conducted in a post-disaster context, the data and recommendations presented in this paper contribute to the body of knowledge that government and non-government institutions, private individuals and groups and the academia could use in understanding the economic, commercial and community development contributions, gaps and constraints in producing seaweed in rural-poor coastal communities.

Originality/value

This paper serves as an in-depth empirical study reflective of the post-disaster, current gendered labor practices, culture, knowledge and attitude of the seaweed producers in the Philippines. More importantly, this study was conducted by a local researcher, thereby reflecting empirical findings and recommendations that are strategic, gender and culture-sensitive and timely and relevant.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

JianQin Xiang, Feicheng Ma and Haiyan Wang

Studies have indicated that international innovation collaboration has promoted technology transfer and knowledge spillover between countries. The conclusion of various…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies have indicated that international innovation collaboration has promoted technology transfer and knowledge spillover between countries. The conclusion of various international intellectual property (IP) treaties has played an essential role in optimizing the international innovation and collaboration environment. This study investigates the effect of IP treaties on international innovation collaboration and whether international IP treaties can promote collaboration between a country and other economies in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

After collecting and extracting the patent record data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), a final dataset of 3,213,626 cooperative patents and 465,236 pairs of collaborations between two countries or regions is established. Based on the international patent collaboration data of 192 countries during 1976–2017, the changes in patent collaboration indicators after these countries joined 23 IP treaties are analyzed.

Findings

International IP treaties have significantly increased the number of patent cooperation countries of a country and its importance in international cooperation networks. The role of IP treaties is more manifested by the increased opportunities for a country's international innovation cooperation than its influence on global innovation; this is of extreme significance for developing countries to introduce advanced technologies.

Originality/value

Ginarte and Park (1997) have confirmed that IP treaties have helped to raise the level of IP protection. In this study, the increase in the degree centrality of the international innovation network is evidence of IP treaties to promote innovation cooperation. For a developing country, joining an intellectual property treaty may strengthen intellectual property protection and optimize its own international innovation cooperation methods.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2020

J. Sedfrey S. Santiago

The occurrences of natural hazards in Southeast Asia have become not only more frequent but their severity has also intensified. More than 200,000 persons perished from…

Abstract

The occurrences of natural hazards in Southeast Asia have become not only more frequent but their severity has also intensified. More than 200,000 persons perished from the 2004 tsunami resulting from the 9.1 magnitude earthquake in coastal Sumatra, Indonesia, which was the third strongest since 1900. A record-breaking typhoon internationally named Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda) ravaged Central Philippines in 2013. Failure of the communities, as well as the countries, to cope with the hazards has led to disasters that have compelled them to seek external assistance, especially internationally. In the 2004 and 2013 disasters referred to, one specific form of assistance was the conduct of art therapy especially for children. This chapter surveys the literature and examines why and how art therapy has been used in disasters in the region, and which areas either need further exploration or research.

Details

Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery from Disasters: Perspectives from Southeast Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-791-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Kusum Mundra

This chapter examines the role of immigrant networks on trade, particulalry through the demand effect. First, we examine the effect of immigration on trade when the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of immigrant networks on trade, particulalry through the demand effect. First, we examine the effect of immigration on trade when the immigrants consume more of the good that is abundant in their home country than the natives in a standard Heckscher–Ohlin model and find that the effect of immigration on trade is a priori indeterminate. Our econometric gravity model consisting of 63 major trading and immigrant-sending country for the United States over 1991–2000. We find that the immigrants income, mostly through demand effect has a significant negative effect on U.S. imports. However, if we include the effect of the immigrant income interacted with the size of the immigrant network, measured by the immigrant stock, we find that higher immigrants income lowers the immigrant network effect for both U.S. exports and imports. This we find in addition to the immigrants stock elasticity of 0.27% for U.S. exports and 0.48% for U.S. imports. Capturing the immigrant assimilation with the level of immigrant income and the size of the immigrant enclave this chapter finds that the immigrant network effect on trade flows is weakened by the increasing level of immigrant assimilation.

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Wenlei Zhang, Mingxu Ma, Haiyan Li, Jiapeng Yu and Zhenwei Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to discriminate fake interference caused by polygonal approximation so as to achieve accurate assembly sequence planning and assembly simulation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discriminate fake interference caused by polygonal approximation so as to achieve accurate assembly sequence planning and assembly simulation.

Design/methodology/approach

An approximation zone model is proposed to formulate polygonal approximation. Fake interference is discriminated from hard interference by evaluating if polygonal models intersect within corresponding approximation zones. To reduce the computation, the surface-surface, surface-end face and end face-end face intersection test methods have been developed to evaluate the intersection and obtain collision data. An updated collision detection algorithm with this method is presented, which is implemented by a system named AutoAssem.

Findings

This method has been applied to a set of products such as a valve for assembly interference matrix generation, static and dynamic collision detection. The results show that it ensures the accuracy of assembly sequence planning and assembly simulation for polygonal models.

Practical implications

This method facilitates assembly design in the virtual environment with polygonal models. It can also be applied to computer aided design systems to achieve quick and accurate collision detection.

Originality/value

Fake interference between polygonal models may result in serious errors in assembly sequence planning and assembly simulation. Assembly zone model and novel polygon intersection verification methods have been proposed to effectively tackle this problem. Compared to current methods, this method considers valid penetration direction and approximation difference, does not need to process complicated auxiliary data and can be easily integrated with current collision detection methods.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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