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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Fernanda D.B. Abadio Finco, Sabrina Böser and Lutz Graeve

The aim of this work is to assess antiproliferative effects of phenolic extracts from Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) and Jenipapo (Genipa americana) fruits through a…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work is to assess antiproliferative effects of phenolic extracts from Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) and Jenipapo (Genipa americana) fruits through a comparison of assays.

Design/methodology/approach

Bacaba and Jenipapo phenolic extracts in a concentration range from 0 to 1400 μg/mL were tested by four different assays (MTT, MUH, methylene blue, trypan blue) to assess the antiproliferative potential of the phenolic compounds of these fruits.

Findings

MTT test can be applied with confidence to assess antiproliferative activity to the fruits extracts here studied. The extract of Bacaba showed higher antiproliferative activity than the one of Jenipapo.

Originality/value

Getting to know biofunctional properties of locally consumed fruits such as Bacaba and Jenipapo could enhance commercial properties to these fruits. This study is the first to one to assess the antiproliferative activity of the Brazilian fruits Bacaba and Jenipapo.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Neda Mahami, Nasim Abedimanesh, Somayyeh Asghari, Kosar Mohammadnejad, Mohammad Reza Eskandari, Zivar Nejadebrahimi, Hassan Ahangar, Keivan Nedaei, Mojtaba Fathi, Ehsan Noori and Behrooz Motlagh

This study aims to evaluate the effects of betanin on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) gene expression as well as the tumour…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effects of betanin on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) gene expression as well as the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) cytokine release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy controls.

Design/methodology/approach

PBMCs isolated from whole blood of 50 patients with CAD and 48 healthy subjects aged 45 to 60 years were treated with 10 and 20 µM of betanin for 24 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess gene expression levels of AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6. The supernatants of the cultured cells were used to assess the IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels by ELISA.

Findings

Treatment with both doses of betanin significantly increased AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6 expression in PBMCs of CAD patients compared to control non-treated cells (p < 0.05). In PBMCs of healthy subjects, only treatment with high dose of betanin showed significant increase in AMPK (p = 0.007), SIRT1 (p = 0.013) and SIRT6 (p = 0.024) expression compared to control non-treated cells. Betanin (20 µM) also significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the culture supernatants of the CAD patients compared to control non-treated cells (p < 0.001).

Originality/value

Betanin could enhance AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6 gene expressions in PBMCs and represent a useful complementary treatment to reduce the proinflammatory status accompanied with CAD.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Chander Prakash, Sunpreet Singh, Ilenia Farina, Fernando Fraternali and Luciano Feo

Porous implant surface is shown to facilitate bone in-growth and cell attachment, improving overall osteointegration, while providing adequate mechanical integrity…

Abstract

Purpose

Porous implant surface is shown to facilitate bone in-growth and cell attachment, improving overall osteointegration, while providing adequate mechanical integrity. Recently, biodegradable material possessing such superior properties has been the focus with an aim of revolutionizing implant’s design, material and performance. This paper aims to present a comprehensive investigation into the design and development of low elastic modulus porous biodegradable Mg-3Si-5HA composite by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (MA-SPS) technique.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the design and development of low elastic modulus porous biodegradable Mg-3Si-5HA composite by MA-SPS technique. As the key alloying elements, HA powders with an appropriate proportion weight 5 and 10 are mixed with the base elemental magnesium (Mg) particles to form the composites of potentially variable porosity and mechanical property. The aim is to investigate the performance of the synthesized composites of Mg-3Si together with HA in terms of mechanical integrity hardness and Young’s moduli corrosion resistance and in-vitro bioactivity.

Findings

Mechanical and surface characterization results indicate that alloying of Si leads to the formation of fine Mg2 Si eutectic dense structure, hence increasing hardness while reducing the ductility of the composite. On the other hand, the allying of HA in Mg-3Si matrix leads to the formation of structural porosity (5-13 per cent), thus resulting in low Young’s moduli. It is hypothesized that biocompatible phases formed within the composite enhanced the corrosion performance and bio-mechanical integrity of the composite. The degradation rate of Mg-3Si composite was reduced from 2.05 mm/year to 1.19 mm/year by the alloying of HA elements. Moreover, the fabricated composites showed an excellent bioactivity and offered a channel/interface to MG-63 cells for attachment, proliferation and differentiation.

Originality/value

Overall, the findings suggest that the Mg-3Si-HA composite fabricated by MA and plasma sintering may be considered as a potential biodegradable material for orthopedic application.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Shanglong Xu, Dichen Li, Bingheng Lu, Yiping Tang, Chaofeng Wang and Zhen Wang

The purpose of this paper is to adopt rapid prototyping (RP) technology to fabricate self‐hardening calcium phosphate composite (CPC) scaffolds with a controlled internal…

1465

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt rapid prototyping (RP) technology to fabricate self‐hardening calcium phosphate composite (CPC) scaffolds with a controlled internal channel network to facilitate nutrient supplying and cell growth using RP technique and investigate their in vitro performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Porous scaffolds should possess branched channels to ensure uniform cell feeding and even flow of culture medium to promote uniform cell attachment and growth. A new three dimensional (3D) flow channel structure has been designed based on conversation of energy and flow. The CPC scaffold possessing such a channel network was made by indirect solid free form fabrication. Negative model of scaffold was designed by Pro/E software and its epoxy resin mold was fabricated on a sterolithography apparatus and the CPC slurry was filled in these molds. After CPC was self hardened, the mold was baked. The mold was removed by pyrolysis and then the designed scaffold was obtained.

Findings

The sizes of the fabricated scaffolds were consistent with the designed. The average compressive strength of the scaffold is approximately 6.0 MPa. Computational fluid dynamics and perfusion culture results showed that such a 3D flow channel arrangement would lead to a more uniform distribution of flow and cells and good transportation of nutrients.

Research limitations/implications

The size errors of fabricated scaffolds could not escape and perfusion methods were difficult to control.

Originality/value

The basic design concept presented showed great promise for use in bone tissue engineering and fabrication method enhanced the versatility of scaffold fabrication. The designed scaffold structure made it possible to keep integrality of the scaffold when direct observation cells inside the channel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Panata Iawsipo, Rotsukon Poonbud, Natcha Somtragool, Photsathorn Mutapat and Anan Meejom

The study aimed to disclose the anti-cancer activity of Pluchea indica tea leaves by evaluating the cytotoxicity on breast and cervical cancer cells, compared with…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to disclose the anti-cancer activity of Pluchea indica tea leaves by evaluating the cytotoxicity on breast and cervical cancer cells, compared with non-cancer cells.

Design/methodology/approach

Two P. indica extracts were prepared using two solvents, namely hot water (PA) and ethanol (PE). MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and clonogenic assays were applied to determine cytotoxic effect of both extracts toward cancer cells from human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and cervix (SiHa, HeLa and C-33A) and also non-cancer Vero cells. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA)-staining assay was used to quantify the intracellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Correlation between the quantity of compounds present and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was analyzed by Pearson's method and a possible class of bioactive compounds was proposed based on the highest correlation coefficient (r).

Findings

Significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation capability was observed in all cancer cells after treatment with either PA or PE extract albeit PE was more effective. Lower toxicity was detected in Vero cells, indicating the selectivity and safety of extracts. The intracellular ROS level was augmented in treated cancer cells which were inversely correlated to cell viability, suggesting the cancer toxicity was likely induced by intracellular oxidative stress. As flavonoids were found abundantly in the extracts and flavonoids' content was the most related to the activity (r = 0.815), it was hypothesized that the flavonoids might play crucial roles in cancer cytotoxicity.

Originality/value

P. indica tea-leaf extracts can be a good source of promising anti-cancer agents with reduced side effects for breast and cervical cancer treatment.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Chong Hueh Zan, Asmah Rahmat, Abdah, Akim, Norjahan Banu Mohd. Alitheen, Fauziah Othman and Gwendoline Ee Cheng Lian

The purpose of this paper is to screen cytotoxic activities of commonly used culinary plants in Malaysia, Pandanus amaryllifolius (daun pandan), Curcuma longa (turmeric…

830

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to screen cytotoxic activities of commonly used culinary plants in Malaysia, Pandanus amaryllifolius (daun pandan), Curcuma longa (turmeric leaves) and Etlingera elatior (kantan flower) against selected cancer cell lines.

Design/methodology/approach

Plant samples were extracted exhaustively with ethanol and concentrated under rotary evaporator. Cytotoxic evaluation was carried out with plant extracts (0‐100 μg/ml) using 72‐h MTT assay.

Findings

Exposure of plant extracts reduced cell viability of HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), HT‐29 (colon carcinoma), MDA‐MB‐231 (non‐hormone‐dependent breast cancer), MCF‐7 (hormone‐dependent breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer); 50 percent inhibitory values (IC50) were obtained for MDA‐MB‐231, HepG2, HT‐29. Extracts within the concentrations of 10‐100 μg/ml were found not to be effective against proliferation of MCF‐7 and HeLa.

Originality/value

The paper shows how culinary plants – daun pandan, turmeric leaves and kantan flower displayed selective cytotoxic effects towards liver, colon and breast cancer in vitro.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Cho‐Pei Jiang, Jyun‐Ru Huang and Ming‐Fa Hsieh

Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Poly(ε‐caprolactone) (PCL) is a good candidate for scaffold fabrication…

1220

Abstract

Purpose

Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Poly(ε‐caprolactone) (PCL) is a good candidate for scaffold fabrication due to its high mechanical strength and excellent resistance under moist conditions, but its hydrophobicity causes cell‐attached difficulties, thus limiting its clinical application. The paper aims to develop an air pressure‐aided deposition system for fabricating scaffolds made of synthesized PCL‐PEG‐PCL copolymers and to validate the biocompatibility and hydrophilicity improvement of fabricated scaffolds.

Design/methodology/approach

An air pressure‐aided deposition system that involves rapid prototyping technique has been developed to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) application. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a hydrophilic non‐ionic polymer, is adopted to reduce the hydrophobicity of PCL alone. The synthesis process of PCL‐PEG‐PCL copolymer is briefly introduced. Effect of viscosity in regard to scanning speed on the deposited strand is investigated. Scaffolds with different mean pore sizes are fabricated using the developed system. The fibroblast cells are seeded for culturing and biocompatibility of fabricated scaffolds are validated using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay.

Findings

The study finds that the air pressure‐aided deposition system is suitable for fabricating micro‐porous cellular scaffold, especially for thermal‐sensitive copolymers. In addition, the experimental results shows that at the molecular weight of 50,000, the molten form can be stably deposited through a heating nozzle at an air pressure of 0.3 MPa and no crack occurs after it solidifies. The scaffold with mean pore size of 339×396 μm is suitable for fibroblast binding and ingrowth. The synthesized copolymers are non‐toxic, biocompatible and can be used for biomedical application.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows that weight ratio of PEG, 0.1, enhances the hydrophilicity of copolymer. Improvement regarding the weight ratio of PEG is necessary. Important challenges for further research are to optimize the fabrication parameter and pore interconnection for eliminating pore size error and enhancing cells proliferation, respectively.

Originality/value

An air pressure‐aided deposition system is successfully proposed to construct 3D tissue scaffolds. In addition, synthesized PCL‐PEG‐PCL copolymers are verified for biocompatibility and successfully fabricated into tissue scaffold with different mean pore sizes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Fatemeh Aamazadeh, Jaleh Barar, Yalda Rahbar Saadat and Alireza Ostadrahimi

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of sweet apricot kernel ethanolic extract (SAEE) on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of sweet apricot kernel ethanolic extract (SAEE) on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Design/methodology/approach

The extract was prepared by maceration, and its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The biological effects of SAEE on PANC-1 and 293/KDR cells were investigated using MTT (3–(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and AnnexinV/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time q-PCR) analysis.

Findings

The SAEE showed the selective growth inhibitory activity against PANC-1 cells with an IC50 (the 50% inhibitory concentration) value of about 1 mg/mL at 72 h. Further investigations by DAPI staining and flow cytometry revealed nucleus fragmentation and elevation of apoptotic cells, respectively. Also, a significant decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated x protein (Bax) ratio (0.41, p = 0.001) and the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression (1.5 fold, p = 0.002) indicated the induction of apoptosis in PANC-1 cells but not in 293/KDR non-cancerous cells. These results suggest that SAEE could induce apoptosis in cancer cells via a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis showed that the SAEE is rich in γ-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol. Overall, the findings suggest that because of the selective impacts of SAEE on PANC-1 cells, it can be considered as a supportive care in adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. However, the potent anticancer effects of main components of SAEE and its clinical value as an antitumor drug should be further investigated.

Research limitations/implications

Considerable limitations of this study were that the related mechanisms of selective impacts of SAEE on cancerous and normal cells and potent cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of γ-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol as major components of SAEE were not investigated.

Originality/value

Recently, a growing interest has been dedicated to plant-based natural products. Sweet apricot kernel exerts a number of pharmacological activities; however, the anticancer effect, related mechanisms and its active compounds were rarely investigated. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of SAEE on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Krishna C R Kolan, Albin Thomas, Ming C Leu and Greg Hilmas

The purpose of this paper is to utilize the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate scaffolds with complex pore shapes and investigate the effects of pore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilize the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate scaffolds with complex pore shapes and investigate the effects of pore geometry in vitro. The pore geometry of scaffolds intended for use in bone repair is one of the most important parameters used to determine the rate of bone regeneration.

Design/methodology/approach

Scaffolds with five different architectures, having approximately 50 per cent porosity, were fabricated with silicate (13–93) and borate (13–93B3)-based bioactive glasses using the SLS process. An established late-osteoblasts/early-osteocytes cell line was used to perform cell proliferation tests on the scaffolds. The cell-seeded scaffolds were incubated for two, four and six days followed by MTT assay to quantify the metabolically active cells.

Findings

The results indicated that the cells proliferate significantly more on the scaffolds which mimic the trabecular bone architecture compared to traditional lattice structures. The surface roughness of the SLS-fabricated scaffolds drives the initial cell proliferation which is followed by curvature-driven cell proliferation.

Originality/value

There have been very few studies on the effects of pore geometry on tissue growth and the existing reports do not provide clear indications. Instead of using bio-polymer or titanium-based scaffolds, we use bioactive glass scaffolds. The results obtained from this study add to the understanding of the effect of pore geometry on cell proliferation, which is based on the experimental data and analysis of the scaffolds’ surface curvature.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Asmah Rahmat, Steven A. Burr and Jeffrey R. Fry

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is…

672

Abstract

Purpose

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is to determine the cytotoxic activity of Mangifera pajang (bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (tarap) crude extracts against selected cancer cell lines (i.e. ovarian, liver and colon cancer) and to compare the amount of selected polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and flavones) in the kernel, peel and flesh of M. pajang; and the seed and flesh of A. odoratissimus.

Design/methodology/approach

Cytotoxicity activity of the extracts are investigated using MTT (3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay while polyphenols are determined using high performance liquid chromatography.

Findings

The results show that only the kernel and peel extracts from M. pajang display cytotoxic activity in liver and ovarian cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 34.5 to 92.0  μg/ml. The proliferation of colon cancer cell line is inhibited only by the kernel of M. pajang with IC50 value of 63.0  μg/ml. The kernel and peel from M. pajang contains a broad range of polyphenol phytochemicals which might be responsible for the cytotoxicity activity against selected cancer cell lines.

Originality/value

Previous reports have indicated that both M. pajang and A. odoratissimus contain high antioxidant properties. This study further determines the phytochemicals profiling in both fruits, which might contribute to the antioxidant activity. Besides that, the result from this study shows that the waste of the fruits (i.e. kernel and peel) contain superior phenolic phytochemicals and display better anticancer potential compared to the flesh; suggests the use of them in health‐industry application. Utilization of all parts of the fruits (i.e. flesh, seed, kernel and peel) for the development of nutraceutical and functional food application is suggested.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 32