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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Manju V.M. and Ganesh R.S.

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combined with multi-user massive MIMO has been a well-known approach for high spectral efficiency in wideband systems, and it was…

Abstract

Purpose

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combined with multi-user massive MIMO has been a well-known approach for high spectral efficiency in wideband systems, and it was targeted to detect the MIMO signals. The increasing data rates with multiple antennas and multiple users that share the communication channel simultaneously lead to higher capacity requirements and increased complexity. Thus, different detection algorithms were developed for the Massive MIMO.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on the various literature analyzes on various detection algorithms and techniques for MIMO detectors. Here, it reviews several research papers and exhibits the significance of each detection method.

Findings

This paper provides the details of the performance analysis of the MIMO detectors and reveals the best value in the case of each performance measure. Finally, it widens the research issues that can be useful for future researchers to be accomplished in MIMO massive detectors

Originality/value

This paper has presented a detailed review of the detection of massive MIMO on different algorithms and techniques. The survey mainly focuses on different types of channels used in MIMO detections, the number of antennas used in transmitting signals from the source to destination, and vice-versa. The performance measures and the best performance of each of the detectors are described.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Shafinaz Mohd Basir, Idnin Pasya, Tajmalludin Yaakob, Nur Emileen Abd Rashid and Takehiko Kobayashi

This paper aims to present an approach of utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept to enhance pedestrian classification in automotive sensors. In a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an approach of utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept to enhance pedestrian classification in automotive sensors. In a practical environment, radar signals reflected from pedestrians and slow-moving vehicles are similar in terms of reflecting angle and Doppler returns, inducing difficulty for target discrimination. An efficient discrimination between the two targets depends on the ability of the sensor to extract unique characteristics from each target, for example, by exploiting Doppler signatures. This study describes the utilization of MIMO radar for Doppler measurement and demonstrates its application to improve pedestrian classification through actual laboratory measurements.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple non-modulated sinusoidal signals are transmitted orthogonally over a MIMO array using time division scheme, illuminating human and non-human targets. The reflected signal entering each of the receiving antenna are combined at the radar receiver prior to Doppler processing. Doppler histogram was formulated based on a series of measurements, and the Doppler spread of the targets was determined from the histograms. Results were compared between MIMO and conventional single antenna systems.

Findings

Measurement results indicated that the MIMO configuration provides able to capture more Doppler information compared to conventional single antenna systems, enabling a more precise discrimination between pedestrian and other slow-moving objects on the road.

Originality/value

The study demonstrated the effectiveness of using MIMO configuration in radar-based automotive sensor to enhance the accuracy of Doppler estimation, which is seldom highlighted in literature of MIMO radars. The result also indicated its usefulness in improving target discrimination capability of the radar, through actual measurement.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Ajit Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar Mahto and Rashmi Sinha

This study aims to present dual band reconfigurable MIMO antenna for 5G (sub-6 GHz) and WLAN applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present dual band reconfigurable MIMO antenna for 5G (sub-6 GHz) and WLAN applications.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve optimum bandwidth, radiation pattern and radiation efficiency, the defected ground structure (DGS) and a rectangular stub connected with the DGS are used. To further cover the sub-6 GHz spectrum (3.4–3.6 GHz) for future 5G communications, a two-element multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna configuration is designed by using the single element antenna. The proposed reconfigurable MIMO antenna using a PIN diode is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 and a loss tangent of 0.02 and a 35 × 20 × 1.6 mm3 dimension.

Findings

The proposed antenna achieved dual operating bands of 3.4–4.1 GHz (5 G sub-6GHz applications) and 4.99–5.16 GHz (WLAN application) in the D = ON state. For D = OFF state, the proposed antenna achieved 3.55–3.65 GHz and 3.66–4.05 GHz frequency bands for 5G (sub-6GHz) applications. In terms of the envelop correlation coefficient, diversity gain, mean effective gain, total active reflection coefficient and isolation between the ports, the proposed antenna’s diversity performance characteristics are investigated and the obtained values are 0.05, 9.9 dB, ±3dB, −4dB, −15dB, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The fabricated prototype antenna on FR4 substrate has measurable parameters that are in good agreement with the simulated findings. Due to hardware design limitations, there is a minor difference between software and hardware results.

Originality/value

The proposed MIMO antenna is compact and reconfigurable for 5G (sub-6GHz) and WLAN applications, and from the graph, the measurements and simulations have been found to be in close agreement.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Yashar Zehforoosh and Payam Alemi

An Elephant trunk shape (ETS) radiating element is used to achieve the two covering bands of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna. These frequency bands can be…

Abstract

Purpose

An Elephant trunk shape (ETS) radiating element is used to achieve the two covering bands of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna. These frequency bands can be controlled by the length of a slot embedded in ETS. The slot length in ETS plays a defining role in controlling the impedance bandwidth (IBW) of the MIMO antenna, and its diligent adjustment of it leads to cover the frequency range of Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network systems.

Design/methodology/approach

A new MIMO antenna is introduced in this paper in conjunction with an enhanced Wilkinson power divider feeding platform.

Findings

These frequency bands can be controlled by the length of a slot embedded in ETS. The slot length in ETS plays a defining role in controlling the IBW of the MIMO antenna, and its diligent adjustment leads to covering the frequency range of Bluetooth and WLAN systems.

Originality/value

The proposed MIMO antenna benefits from good isolation between ports for both frequency bands. The proposed MIMO antenna is constructed on FR4 substrate with a volume of 90 × 134 × 1.6 mm3.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Y.K. Shobha and H.G. Rangaraju

The suggested work examines the latest developments such as the techniques employed for allocation of power, browser techniques, modern analysis and bandwidth efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

The suggested work examines the latest developments such as the techniques employed for allocation of power, browser techniques, modern analysis and bandwidth efficiency of nonorthogonal multiple accesses (NOMA) in the network of 5G. Furthermore, the proposed work also illustrates the performance of NOMA when it is combined with various techniques of wireless communication namely network coding, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), space-time coding, collective communications, as well as many more. In the case of the MIMO system, the proposed research work specifically deals with a less complex recursive linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) multiuser detector along with NOMA (MIMO-NOMA); here the multiple-antenna base station (BS) and multiple single-antenna users interact with each other instantaneously. Although LMMSE is a linear detector with a low intricacy, it performs poorly in multiuser identification because of the incompatibility between LMMSE identification and multiuser decoding. Thus, to obtain a desirable iterative identification rate, the proposed research work presents matching constraints among the decoders and identifiers of MIMO-NOMA.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the performance in 5G technologies as well as in cellular communication, the NOMA technique is employed and contemplated as one of the best methodologies for accessing radio. The above-stated technique offers several advantages such as enhanced spectrum performance in contrast to the high-capacity orthogonal multiple access (OMA) approach that is also known as orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). Code and power domain are some of the categories of the NOMA technique. The suggested research work mainly concentrates on the technique of NOMA, which is based on the power domain. This approach correspondingly makes use of superposition coding (SC) as well as successive interference cancellation (SIC) at source and recipient. For the fifth-generation applications, the network-level, as well as user-experienced data rate prerequisites, are successfully illustrated by various researchers.

Findings

The suggested combined methodology such as MIMO-NOMA demonstrates a synchronized iterative LMMSE system that can accomplish the optimized efficiency of symmetric MIMO NOMA with several users. To transmit the information from sender to the receiver, hybrid methodologies are confined to 2 × 2 as well as 4 × 4 antenna arrays, and thereby parameters such as PAPR, BER, SNR are analyzed and efficiency for various modulation strategies such as BPSK and QAMj (j should vary from 8,16,32,64) are computed.

Originality/value

The proposed hybrid MIMO-NOMA methodologies are synchronized in terms of iterative process for optimization of LMMSE that can accomplish the optimized efficiency of symmetric for several users under different noisy conditions. From the obtained simulated results, it is found, there are 18%, 23% 16%, and 8% improvement in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER), Least Minimum Mean Squared Error (LMMSE), Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR), and capacity of channel respectively for Binary Phase Shift Key (BPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) modulation techniques.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

D. Srikar and Sundru Anuradha

This study aims to propose a two-element multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) antenna for cognitive radio MIMO applications to avoid the complexities involved in reconfigurable…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a two-element multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) antenna for cognitive radio MIMO applications to avoid the complexities involved in reconfigurable antennas and improve the spectrum utilization efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed MIMO antenna system comprises a wideband antenna that operates at 2 GHz–12 GHz for sensing the spectrum and four pairs of antennas for communication, which are single and dual-band antennas. Each pair of antennas meant for communication consists of two similar antennas. Moreover, the antennas meant for communication cover 93% of the bandwidth of the sensing antenna.

Findings

The first pair of antennas accessible at ports P2 and P6 and the second pair of antennas accessible at ports P4 and P8, which are dual-band antennas, operate at 3.05 GHz–3.85 GHz, 5.8 GHz–8 GHz and 2.05 GHz–2.55 GHz, 4.7 GHz–6.1 GHz, respectively. While the third pair of antennas accessible at ports P3 and P7 and the fourth pair of antennas accessible at ports P5 and P9 are single-band antennas and operate at 3.85 GHz–4.7 GHz and 8 GHz–11 GHz, respectively. Minimum isolations of 20 dB and 15 dB are attained between every two similar antennas for communication and between the sensing antenna and the antennas meant for communication, respectively. The correctness of the proposed antenna is verified with a fine match between the results obtained from simulations and measurements.

Originality/value

The proposed MIMO antenna possesses salient features, such as polarization diversity and performing a maximum of four communication tasks when all the white spaces are detected.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Preeti Pannu and Devendra Kumar Sharma

This paper aims to design a most demanding low profile and compact ultra-wide band (UWB) antenna system for various wireless applications. The performance (in terms of…

59

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to design a most demanding low profile and compact ultra-wide band (UWB) antenna system for various wireless applications. The performance (in terms of data rate) of UWB system is improved by using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology with it. Owing to the overlap of other existing licensed bands with that of UWB, electromagnetic signals can interfere. So, notched band UWB MIMO antenna system reported here which is highly compact, bandwidth efficient, superior data rate and high inter-element isolation comparatively to other reported designs.

Design/methodology/approach

A 49 × 49 × 1.6 mm3 quad-port UWB MIMO antenna with specific bandwidth elimination property is designed. The proposed planar MIMO configuration comprises unique four identical “Cordate-shaped” monopole radiators fed by 2.3-mm thick microstrip-lines. The radiators are located right-angled to each other to enhance inter-element isolation. Further, a different approach of slitted-substrate is applied to minimize the overall size and mutual coupling of the MIMO antenna, as a substitute of decoupling and matching structures. The defected ground structure is used to obtain −10 dB impedance bandwidth in entire UWB band, without compromising with the lower cut-off frequency response. Further, to eliminate the undesired resonant band (WLAN at 5.5 GHz) from UWB, a rounded split ring resonator is introduced in monopole patch.

Findings

In the entire operating band of 2.8 to 11 GHz, isolation among elements is more than 24 dB, envelope correlation coefficient less than 0.002, diversity gain greater than 9.99 dB and TARC less than −7 dB are obtained at all 4-ports.

Research limitations/implications

The measured parameters of the fabricated prototype antenna on FR4 substrate are found in good agreement with the simulated results. The small variation in software results and hardware results are observed due to hardware design limitations.

Practical implications

The proposed design may be used for any wireless application following in the range of UWB.

Originality/value

It can be shown from graphs of measured parameters of the fabricated prototype antenna. They found to be in good agreement with the simulated results.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Shobha Y.K. and Rangaraju H.G.

In order to optimize BER and to substantiate performance measures, initially, the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) performance metrics…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to optimize BER and to substantiate performance measures, initially, the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) performance metrics are evaluated with the cyclic prefix-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) system. The efficiency of CP-OFDM, as well as FBMC/QAM that is transmitting over specific fading channels, is evaluated in terms of quality trade-off metrics over bit error rate (BER) as well as modulation order. When compared with the traditional FBMC systems, the proposed FBMC QAM system shows better performance. The performance metrics of FBMC/QAM with the inclusion of multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MUMIMO) is validated with worst case channel environment. The performance penalty gap that exists in CP- OFDM is compared with improved FBMC QAM in terms of both BER and OOB radiation measures. The BER trade off comparison between ML and MMSE optimally determine the prominent signal detection model for high performance FBMC QAM system.

Design/methodology/approach

The main objective of this research work is to provide perceptions about performance, co-channel interference avoidance as well as about the techniques that are used for minimizing the complexity of the system that is related to FBMC QAM structure for reducing intrinsic interference with higher spectral features as well as maximal likelihood (ML) detector systems.

Findings

This research work also looks at the efficiency of multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) FBMC/QAM over nonlinear channels. Furthermore, when compared with OFDM, it also significantly reduces the penalty gap efficiency, thereby enabling the accessibility of the proposed FBMC QAM system from BER as well as implementation point of view. Finally, the signal detection is facilitated by the sub-detector and is achieved on the downlink side by making use of threshold-driven statistical measures that accurately minimize the complexity trade-off measures of the ML detector over modulation order. The computation of the proposed FBMC method’s BER performance measures was carried out through MATLAB simulation environments, as well as efficiency of the suggested work was demonstrated through detailed analyses.

Originality/value

This research work intend to combine the efficient MU-MIMO based transmission scheme with optimal FBMC/QAM for improved QoS over highly nonlinear channels which includes both delay spread and Doppler effects. And optimal signal detection model is facilitated at the downlink side by making use of threshold-driven statistical measures that accurately minimize the complexity trade-off measures of the ML detector over modulation order. The computation of the proposed FBMC method’s BER performance measures was carried out through MATLAB simulation environments, as well as efficiency of the suggested work was demonstrated through detailed analyses.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Nitin Tejram Deotale

To enhance the performance transmit antenna selection (TAS) of spatial modulation (SM), systems technique needs to be essential. This TAS is an effective technique for…

Abstract

Purpose

To enhance the performance transmit antenna selection (TAS) of spatial modulation (SM), systems technique needs to be essential. This TAS is an effective technique for reducing the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems computational difficulty, and bit error rate (BER) can increase remarkably by various TAS algorithms. But these selection methods cannot provide code gain, so it is essential to join the TAS with external code to obtain cy -ode gain advantages in BER.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH)-Turbo code TC is combined with the orthogonal space time block code system.

Findings

In some existing work, the improved BER has been perceived by joining forward error correction code and space time block code (STBC) for MIMO systems provided greater code gain. The proposed work can provide increasing code gain and the effective advantages of the TAS-OSTBC system.

Originality/value

To perform the system analysis, Rayleigh channel is used. In the case with multiple TAS-OSTBC systems, better performance can provide by this new joint of the BCH-Turbo compared to the conventional Turbo code for the Rayleigh fading.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Khaled Abdulaziz Alaghbari, Lim Heng Siong and Alan W.C. Tan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a robust correntropy assisted blind channel estimator for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a robust correntropy assisted blind channel estimator for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) for improved channel gains estimation and channel ordering and sign ambiguities resolution in non-Gaussian noise channel.

Design/methodology/approach

The correntropy independent component analysis with L1-norm cost function is used for blind channel estimation. Then a correntropy-based method is formulated to resolve the sign and order ambiguities of the channel estimates.

Findings

Simulation study on Gaussian noise scenario shows that the proposed method achieves almost the same performance as the conventional L2-norm based method. However, in non-Gaussian noise scenarios performance of the proposed method significantly outperforms the conventional and other popular estimators in terms of mean square error (MSE). To solve the ordering and sign ambiguities problems, an auto-correntropy-based method is proposed and compared with the extended cross-correlation-based method. Simulation study shows improved performance of the proposed method in terms of MSE.

Originality/value

This paper presents for the first time, a correntropy-based blind channel estimator for MIMO-OFDM as well as simulated comparison results with traditional correlation-based methods in non-Gaussian noise environment.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of 380