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The Godfather theory of management is a power and control model of leadership. Explains a process whereby leaders can move a dysfunctional and subversive organization into…
The Godfather theory of management is a power and control model of leadership. Explains a process whereby leaders can move a dysfunctional and subversive organization into the realm of a quality organization. Although the theme of the article is based on the Godfather series of motion pictures, the reality of the management style focuses on principles of organizational behaviour. The author continually stresses that Godfather Management is transitional management and cannot sustain itself over an extended period of time. Provides a model to assist leaders in the retention, the selection, and the elimination of individuals within either the organizational structure or the leadership team. Discusses a systematic method for new leaders to initially assess the organizational culture and to make the changes necessary for long‐term success.
The purpose of this two‐part series is to consider the role of the “scientific method” (SM) in human understanding, questioning both its consistency in actual practice and…
The purpose of this two‐part series is to consider the role of the “scientific method” (SM) in human understanding, questioning both its consistency in actual practice and its reasonableness as a system of philosophy and action.
Part 2 considers problems of inefficiency and inertia caused by the SM's collectivist, frequentist orientation.
It is argued that problems caused by the SM's frequentist framework may be avoided by a more individualist, Bayesian approach.
The two‐part series challenges certain aspects of the “scientific method” as employed in the practice of modern science.
Events surrounding September 11, 2001, have motivated increasing interest in identifying, assessing, and managing the risk of “extreme events.” This article introduces a…
Events surrounding September 11, 2001, have motivated increasing interest in identifying, assessing, and managing the risk of “extreme events.” This article introduces a new mathematical framework for the risk management of extreme event risk. In the article, the author proposes criteria based on “higher” (the third and fourth) moments that dominate variance (the second moment) in explaining the economics of insurance and reinsurance. Economic and financial implications are then applied to the underwriting and investment activities of insurers and reinsurers.
I recently decided that there was no longer space to store 20 years worth of Accountancy and Accountancy Age. Prior to disposal I reviewed all the back issues for articles of particular note worth saving. In the course of this process, a number of things were striking. First, articles on financial reporting were conspicuous in the 1980s, and in the 1990s it was auditing which seemed to be the main object of discussion. Second, risk and risk management begin to receive regular exposure only from about the mid‐1990s onwards. In particular, the late 1990s reveal an increasing commentary on practice management and risks to professional partnerships.
Indonesian law provides prisoners with basic rights, including access to education, health care and nutrition. Yet, structural and institutional limitations, notably…
Indonesian law provides prisoners with basic rights, including access to education, health care and nutrition. Yet, structural and institutional limitations, notably overcrowding and under-resourcing, prohibits penal institutions from fulfilling these commitments for female prisoners. The purpose of this paper is to explore their health concerns.
Six prisons and one detention centre were researched, comprising: female prisoners (n=69); clinical officers (six); clinic heads (seven); wardens (seven); heads of prisons (seven); and a Directorate representative. Data were collected through observation, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Raw data were transcribed and analysed thematically, adopting the General Principles of Grounded Theory.
Both “formal” and “informal” health-coping strategies were dependent upon a range of factors which determined access to treatment, medicines and other items procured both inside and outside of the prison, as well as referral services. Informal systems of support existed for women, especially in regard to pregnancy and raising of babies born in detention. Systems that maintain harmony within cell blocks were identified as an important informal coping strategy.
This research is important in informing policy and practice. There is a clear need for gender-sensitive legislative frameworks, penal policies and prison rules to ensure women's needs are addressed. The identified coping strategies were considered viable, but do not replace the need for a health system providing women prisoners with levels of care as available in the community, including commensurate budgeting, personnel, access and referral to more specialised external health services.
An agency relationship exists whenever one party (the principal) delegates authority to another (the agent). Because agents are assumed to be self-interested and to…
An agency relationship exists whenever one party (the principal) delegates authority to another (the agent). Because agents are assumed to be self-interested and to possess goals that diverge from the principal's goals, the principal must expend resources (called agency costs) to insure that agents act in her interest (Jensen & Meckling, 1976). In chains, the firm can choose as outlet managers either employees who are paid a salary (and perhaps a bonus) or franchisees who are granted the right to their outlet's profits after royalties and other expenses. In both cases, an agency problem is created because the firm delegates local decision-making to outlet managers whose interests are not perfectly aligned with that of the franchisor's (Rubin, 1978).
This article applies the theory of coalition formation in triads to channels of distribution. The theory explains alternative power strategies of weaker (smaller) channel…
This article applies the theory of coalition formation in triads to channels of distribution. The theory explains alternative power strategies of weaker (smaller) channel members to dominance by more powerful channel entities. Six pre‐coalition situations are examined to aid in predicting the possible conditions that may form, given an uneven distribution of power in the channel system. This type of analysis could be used to predict disadvantageous power combinations in the channels of distribution to the overall macro effectiveness of the channel system.
Most of the literature on the World Bank struggles to understand precisely how effective are the Bank’s projects and policies, emphasizing at the same time as reaffirming…
Most of the literature on the World Bank struggles to understand precisely how effective are the Bank’s projects and policies, emphasizing at the same time as reaffirming certain universal parameters with which to measure the good and the bad. This article, by contrast, argues for a different way of seeing the World Bank, that is, for scholarship that interrogates the political rationalities which underlie these distinctions and categories and which make these parameters and measures viable, necessary, and enduring. Indeed, most writings – including the innumerable self‐evaluations carried out by the Bank – simultaneously note the enormity of the Bank’s past misdeeds as well as its unique position as the only global institution up to the monumental task of translating global truths into global plans of action. Because of its unique role as the global development expert, the Bank is always two steps ahead of the pack, always re‐assessing and re‐tooling for improvement in ways that most national and international institutions cannot. Who else can respond so quickly to catastrophes around the globe – appearing one month in Thailand, the next in Argentina, and, in a bomb’s flash, in Afghanistan and Iraq? In a world in which global crises routinely erupt and “require” global experts of development to resolve them, the Bank and its affiliates in the World Bank Group have no rivals. But, rather than ask why the Bank’s responses are ultimately insufficient or flawed, we must first ask how problems get defined in terms of global crises and their solutions in terms of global development institutions in the first place? How did these ideas and institutions become so influential? What power dynamics do they embody?
The power of a distribution channel member represents “(his) ability to control decision variables in the marketing strategy of another member operating at another level”. Bucklin and Alderson stress that power relationships are essential for strong marketing channels. The five bases of power which have been identified and discussed in the marketing channel literature include rewards, coercion, expertness, legitimacy and identification. These power bases are useful in understanding the nature and use of customer service in channels of distribution. For example, reward power is based on the belief by one channel member that another member has the ability to mediate rewards for him. The customer services, fill rate and lead time can be viewed as bases for reward power. Expert power is based on one channel member's belief that another member has some special knowledge or expertise. The ability of a manufacturer to provide market information and/or assistance in inventory management is a potential basis for expert power. Thus, a supplier's strategy for achieving power bases is by providing customers with packages of customer service which they find particulary important.