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The discrete element method (DEM) was used to stimulate creep processes in granular materials. The authors present the main features of the numerical model, which include…
The discrete element method (DEM) was used to stimulate creep processes in granular materials. The authors present the main features of the numerical model, which include a new viscous mechanism for particle sliding, a new feedback technique for maintaining constant stress during creep, and a scaling technique that allowed monitoring the long‐term creep behaviour of a granular assembly. The creep behaviour of the numerical model exhibited the essential characteristics of soil creep—a creep rate that decreased rapidly with time, an increase in the creep rate with the applied deviator stress, and the beginning of creep rupture. The model's numerical performance is discussed, and representative results are presented.
An algorithm is presented for creating a flexible boundary to analyse three‐dimensional assemblies of spheres. It can be used to study localization phenomena in…
An algorithm is presented for creating a flexible boundary to analyse three‐dimensional assemblies of spheres. It can be used to study localization phenomena in particulate materials. The boundary is composed of adjoining triangular plate elements which are connected at their corners to the centres of neighbouring spheres. The applied external boundary stresses create traction forces on the plates, which are distributed among the plates’ particles. The boundary performed favourably in tests on a large assembly of particles when only contact and rotational damping were used. Plane strain compression tests on assemblies with flexible and periodic boundaries revealed a lower strength with the former. This result could be due to the greater restraint on particle movements produced by periodic boundaries or to the early development of a column buckling failure pattern of the assembly with flexible boundaries. No shear bands were observed in the assembly.
We present an overview of research on spillover effects within firms and introduce a classification of the literature. We divide spillovers into either technological or…
We present an overview of research on spillover effects within firms and introduce a classification of the literature. We divide spillovers into either technological or social in nature. In our classification, a technological spillover is one in which an agent rationally responds to a cue in the workplace that does not rely on the identity or characteristics of a coworker. Social spillovers, on the other hand, may be thought of as arising from the social preferences of an individual or social norms established in the organization.
This chapter examines the efforts undertaken to restructure the legal education system in South Africa and Nigeria. It investigates the connection between contextual…
This chapter examines the efforts undertaken to restructure the legal education system in South Africa and Nigeria. It investigates the connection between contextual influences and professional development, particularly with respect to the concept of legal information literacy and the value of acquired educational skills in the context of legal practice. The chapter provides insights to the needs and challenges for graduate requirement for legal information literacy skills in the effort to ensure productivity in the legal education system in Africa. Data were obtained using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Outcomes from the study were supportive of the importance of information literacy as central to the development of professional competence. Findings also point to a need for greater collaboration between the legal education system and the legal profession in narrowing the gap between the teaching and practice of law specifically in the design and implementation of an information literacy framework for the legal education system.
This chapter examines the role of leader workaholism in relation to their own and their followers’ well-being. We begin with an overview of workaholism, along with a…
This chapter examines the role of leader workaholism in relation to their own and their followers’ well-being. We begin with an overview of workaholism, along with a description of how workaholism may relate to typical leader behaviors. We propose a conceptual model linking the various components of workaholism to leaders’ well-being and followers’ well-being. In our model, we propose that leaders’ workaholism can negatively influence their own well-being, and also their followers’ well-being through interindividual crossover of affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of workaholism. Furthermore, the negative well-being outcomes experienced by the workaholic leader can also crossover to the followers through interindividual strain–strain crossover. Several moderating factors of these relationships are discussed, as well as avenues for future research.
To explain how cumulative efforts contribute to learning and literacy development.
A representation of how efforts lead to lasting growth is discussed through a variety of historical and current perspectives across content disciplines. This chapter includes depictions of how positive experiences can promote further success and recognizing one’s cumulative efforts and the effects from those are fundamental to educational attainment.
The value one places on tasks such as reading or writing is often aligned to the frequency with which those events occur. Students view their time and effort as capital; they are students’ most valued possessions, and how they allocate these commodities is a choice.
For students to become avid readers and writers, we must utilize a host of strategies to impress the notion that these activities are worth their attention, time, and investment.
This paper describes studies of the ICAN Intervention and their implications.
This paper describes studies of the ICAN Intervention and their implications.
We adapted the ICAN intervention to support the science interest and learning of at-risk, middle-school-age youth, who were participants in entry-level, out-of-school, inquiry-informed, science workshops. The intervention is a brief ungraded writing assignment that is integrated into science activities on a daily basis in order to encourage workshop participants to reflect on science: what participants understand, the skills they have acquired, and what they still want to figure out.
Findings indicate that the use of the ICAN Intervention in science inquiry supports the development of science interest and science problem solving that is sustained 5 weeks following the workshop. Moreover, participants who write more responses to the ICAN probes are more likely to evidence changes in science learning, regardless of their initial level of interest in science. Participants with less-developed and with more-developed science interest at the beginning of the workshop all progress. The findings further suggest that when the intervention is coupled with an inquiry-informed integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (iSTEM) curriculum, it provides an additional boost for the development of science interest and learning.
The ICAN Intervention as adapted provides a solution to questions raised about whether inquiry-based instruction can promote learning. Our findings indicate that it can. Our findings also demonstrate that when undertaken in a concept and idea-rich environment, the structure of a motivation-based intervention is open-ended enough that all participants will progress, continuing to develop their interest and their learning of disciplinary content.
Using bibliometrics to examine eight core journals in the year 2000 for the disciplines of higher education and library science, characteristics of the authors were…
Using bibliometrics to examine eight core journals in the year 2000 for the disciplines of higher education and library science, characteristics of the authors were determined, including gender or sex; Carnegie Classification or institutional affiliation; and position of the authors. Characteristics of the articles were also examined, including the research methods used such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, or qualitative analysis. A content analysis of each article was performed to determine the subjects discussed in each literature. For both disciplines, it was learned that males publish more, the highest Carnegie Classification, extensive research institutions, were represented the most, and authors came from academic departments other than their own disciplines. In higher education, inferential statistics were used frequently; in library and information descriptive statistics were used frequently; both disciplines failed to use research methodologies regularly. From these findings, it appears that both disciplines are still emerging and are in their early stages of development.