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This study aims to examine the relationship between economic growth and different indicators of air and water pollution in Malaysia. Air pollution indicators were assessed…
This study aims to examine the relationship between economic growth and different indicators of air and water pollution in Malaysia. Air pollution indicators were assessed on a number of measures: carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide (SO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter (PM) while water pollution indicators were evaluating on a number of measures: biochemical oxygen demand, cadmium and arsenic. The income level per capita gross domestic product per capita were measured from the year 1996 to 2006 quarterly. Being different from the study by Hung and Shaw (2004) and Shen (2006), this study estimates population density as an endogenous variable. It formulates a fourequation simultaneous model for empirical research. Testes for exogeneity with the Hausman test and estimates the simultaneity model using the two‐stages least squares method. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported in the cases of SO and PM, and there are several differences found between single polynomial equation estimators commonly used in EKC literatures and simultaneous equation estimators.
The objective of this study is to analyze the framework within which microfinance institutions (MFIs) deliver their services and provide an assessment of their operations…
The objective of this study is to analyze the framework within which microfinance institutions (MFIs) deliver their services and provide an assessment of their operations and financial management. These institutions are examined because of their current importance to a special group of consumers, primarily the poor and disenfranchised in the developing world, and of their future promise as an economic development solution. Since the objective of these institutions is somewhat unique, the manner of their assessment must also differ from that used to assess the performance of traditional financial intermediaries. In particular, assessment of MFIs must recognize their dual (bank and development instrument) status. Their efficiency, then, must be analyzed in terms of its economic (or financial) dimension as well as its social dimension. The first dimension may be examined with traditional measures, while examination of the second requires measures that reflect the MFI’s social objectives. In order to accommodate the special nature of MFIs, this study proposes the use of a Balanced Scorecard approach. It contributes to the study of financial institution performance by examining a non‐traditional group of institutions using a variety of assessment measures. The findings should be of value to those interested in the financial sector as well as those involved in public policy decision making.
The literature on the facilities location problem is quite extensive with a wide variety of solution methods for addressing these problems where the objective is cost…
The literature on the facilities location problem is quite extensive with a wide variety of solution methods for addressing these problems where the objective is cost minimization. Develops a branch and bound algorithm for solving the uncapacitated, multi‐period facility location problem where the objective is to maximize profits. The solution method uses a number of simplification and branching decision rules to solve the problem efficiently. Extensive computational results on the algorithm’s performance are provided. The results indicate that the algorithm provides optimal solutions in substantially less time than LINDO.
Studies have shown that actors who affiliate with multiple categories generally do so at their own peril. Still, category spanning is routinely observed, although it is…
Studies have shown that actors who affiliate with multiple categories generally do so at their own peril. Still, category spanning is routinely observed, although it is less understood. We address this gap by a longitudinal study of category spanning among nanotube technology inventors. Our results highlight the importance of the evolving structure of category relationships, actor embeddedness within the structure, and interactions with other factors, including the attractiveness of related categories. When a category is relationally similar to others, associated inventors are more likely to engage in category spanning, whereas when a category is dissimilar, inventors are more likely to remain within it.
Drawing on the notion of imprinting, we develop a framework for understanding category emergence and durability by suggesting that the durability of a category reflects…
Drawing on the notion of imprinting, we develop a framework for understanding category emergence and durability by suggesting that the durability of a category reflects its emergence conditions. We propose four ideal-typical mechanisms – consensus, proof, fiat, and truce – that arise from differences in the degree of agreement and the centralization of the authority regarding category definitions. Our framework not only relates category durability to emergence but also highlights the role of category promoters and constituencies in an ongoing process of category maintenance. We discuss implications for understanding the dynamics of the categorization process in various social and product market contexts.
Microgrids are inclined to use renewable energy resources within the availability limits. In conventional studies, energy interchange among microgrids was not considered…
Microgrids are inclined to use renewable energy resources within the availability limits. In conventional studies, energy interchange among microgrids was not considered because of one-directional power flows. Hence, this paper aims to study the optimal day-ahead energy scheduling of a centralized networked multi-carrier microgrid (NMCMG). The energy scheduling faces new challenges by inclusion of responsive loads, integration of renewable sources (wind and solar) and interaction of multi-carrier microgrids (MCMGs).
The optimization model is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing and is solved using GAMS software. Numerical simulations are performed on a system with three MCMGs, including combined heat and power, photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines and energy storages to fulfill the required electrical and thermal load demands. In the proposed system, the MCMGs are in grid-connected mode to exchange power when required.
The proposed model is capable of minimizing the system costs by using a novel demand side management model and integrating the multiple-energy infrastructure, as well as handling the energy management of the network. Furthermore, the novel demand side management model gives more accurate optimal results. The operational performance and total cost of the NMCMG in simultaneous operation of multiple carriers has been effectively improved.
Introduction and modeling of the multiple energy demands within the MCMG. A novel time- and incentive-based demand side management, characterized by shifting techniques, is applied to reshape the load curve, as well as for preventing the excessive use of energy in peak hours. This paper analyzes the need to study how inclusion of multiple energy infrastructure integration and responsive load can impact the future distribution network costs.
This research aims to better understand the main drivers of entrepreneurial motivation among university students and to determine whether entrepreneurship education has a…
This research aims to better understand the main drivers of entrepreneurial motivation among university students and to determine whether entrepreneurship education has a moderating effect on improving the impact of knowledge base and entrepreneurship competencies on entrepreneurial motivation.
This study uses a mixed-method approach that combines qualitative interviews and a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 465 university students.
The study reveals that entrepreneurship competencies are a predictor of entrepreneurship motivation but that knowledge base is not. Additionally, entrepreneurship education does not improve the motivation of university students to become entrepreneurs. These findings suggest that, to increase entrepreneurial motivation, pedagogy should emphasize the development of students’ entrepreneurial psychological and social skills by covering in particular the emotional dimension and critical thinking.
This research contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship education and provides strategic recommendations for university managers and education-policy makers.
Bridge lines represent a way for designers to expand their business, because typically designer merchandise is supplied to a limited number of stores. With bridge lines…
Bridge lines represent a way for designers to expand their business, because typically designer merchandise is supplied to a limited number of stores. With bridge lines, the prices are lower and the line can be supplied to more stores. The bridge line market has been rapidly evolving in recent years. Retailers are paying close attention to this sector, particularly in the light of the stagnant demand for more expensive designer ready‐to‐wear collections. Despite the general economic recession, the culture of wearing fashion in the 1990s has paved the way to the growth of bridge lines.