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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

M.R.D. Seaward

Monitoring air, water and soil contamination by means of animals,plants, fungi and bacteria is increasingly in demand for assessingenvironmental quality, environmental…

Abstract

Monitoring air, water and soil contamination by means of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria is increasingly in demand for assessing environmental quality, environmental impacts, and health and safety. It is essential that environmental monitoring by bioassays is credibly based on standardized procedures and on substantial scientific evidence which should include background measurements to establish baseline data. Cites case studies involving the use of organisms for monitoring heavy metals and radionuclides in order to demonstrate such procedural pre‐requisites in environmental surveillance.

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Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

M. Jaffar and Khalid Masud

Levels of selected essential and non‐essential metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn) and those of macro‐nutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na) are estimated in 15 different seasonal…

Abstract

Levels of selected essential and non‐essential metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn) and those of macro‐nutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na) are estimated in 15 different seasonal fruits available in local Pakistan markets. The wet digestion oxidation method was used for the analysis of samples by the flame atomic absorption technique. The results indicated almost 100 percent incidence of occurrence of trace metals and macro‐nutrients in all fruits. The highest concentration was observed for zinc, ranging between 0.13 and 79.9mg/kg, wet weight, respectively for banana and mango. The iron levels ranged from 0.55 to 44.8mg/kg, wet weight, for pomegranate and mango. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu remained at marginal levels, except for certain fruits where the concentrations were very high. The data are compared with allowed safe limits laid down by WHO.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Abstract

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The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-836-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Emeka Smart Oruh and Chianu Dibia

This paper explores the link between employee stress and the high-power distance (HPD) culture in Nigeria. The study context is the banking and manufacturing sectors in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the link between employee stress and the high-power distance (HPD) culture in Nigeria. The study context is the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria, which have a history of exploitation, unconducive work environments to productivity, work-life imbalance, work overload, burnout and employee stress.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative, interpretive methodology, this article adopts a thematic analysis of data drawn from semi-structured interviews with 24 managerial and non-managerial workers to explore the process by which Nigerian manufacturing and banking sectors' work (mal)practices go unchallenged, thereby triggering and exacerbating employees' stress levels.

Findings

The study found that the high power distance culture promotes a servant-master relationship type, making it impossible for employees to challenge employers on issues relating to stressors such as work overload, unconducive work environments, work-life imbalance and burnout, thereby exacerbating their stress levels in a country in which stress has become a way of life.

Research limitations/implications

Research on the relationship between employee stress and HPD culture is relatively underdeveloped. This article sheds light on issues associated with stressors in Nigeria's human resource management (HRM) and employment relations practices. The link between the inability of employees to challenge these stressors (which are consequences of an HPD culture) and increased employee stress has substantial implications for employment and work-related policies and practices in general. The study is constrained by the limited sample size, which inhibits the generalisation of its findings.

Originality/value

The article adds to the scarcity of studies underscoring the relationship between high-power distance and the inability of employees to challenge work-related stressors as a predictor of employee stress and a mediator between workplace practices and employee stress, particularly in the emerging economies.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Muhammad Amirul Syafiq Hamsan and Muhammad Zahir Ramli

Pahang beaches draw more than thousand visitors throughout the year. From the year 2006 to 2018, more than 30 drowning and near-drowning cases were recorded mainly from…

Abstract

Purpose

Pahang beaches draw more than thousand visitors throughout the year. From the year 2006 to 2018, more than 30 drowning and near-drowning cases were recorded mainly from rip currents. Rip currents are defined as unexpected currents that carried beachgoers away to seaward direction more than approximately 50 m from shore. The prediction of rip current development is very important for the protection of human life. This study aims to conduct preliminary survey and field works to identify rip current hazards.

Design/methodology/approach

The output would be an early warning preventative mitigation to public in Pahang. Beach state model, dimensionless fall velocity, littoral environment observation and relative tidal range were recorded for five recreational beaches during two different months (March and April 2018). The morphodynamic parameters such sediment fall velocity, sediment grain size and beach slope are then analysed using software PROFILER. Classification of risks was done based on beach morphodynamic model. The morphodynamics are classified as low tide bar rip, barred and low tide terrace associated with rip current, bar dissipative, reflective, non-bar dissipative, low tide terrace and ultra-dissipative.

Findings

Result shows three out of five recreational beaches may develop high-risk rip currents. During the first month of the survey, Batu Hitam (BH) was recorded the only one recreational beach that may develop high-risk rip current followed by Teluk Cempedak (TC) and Kempadang (KEM) as middle-risk rip current beaches, while Balok (BA) and Sepat (SEP) as low-risk rip current beaches. Different during second month of the survey, BA, BH and SEP were recorded as high-risk rip current beaches while TC and KEM as low-risk rip current beaches.

Originality/value

The results are consistent with beach incidents (drowning and near-drowning) reported.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

V.R. Voller

Understanding the factors that contribute to the growth of sediment delta lobes in river systems has significant benefit towards protecting civil and social infrastructure…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the factors that contribute to the growth of sediment delta lobes in river systems has significant benefit towards protecting civil and social infrastructure from severe weather events. To develop this understanding, this paper aims to construct a three‐dimensional numerical model of a sediment delta depositing on to a two‐dimensional bedrock basement entering an ocean at a constant sea‐level.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used adapts and applies techniques and schemes previously used in building numerical heat transfer models of melting systems. Particular emphasis is placed on modifying fixed grid enthalpy like schemes.

Findings

The resulting model provides important insight on the features that control the partition of sediment delta deposition between the land and ocean domains. The model also illustrates how tectonic subsidence may control the rate of delta growth.

Originality/value

This is the first numerical heat transfer inspired model of a three‐dimensional sediment delta deposit over both land and ocean domains. The problem has scientific merit in that it represents a melting‐like moving boundary problem with two distinct moving boundaries and a space/time dependent latent heat. Further, this work is a necessary first step towards building a comprehensive understanding of how to restore delta systems to protect civil and social infrastructure.

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International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1955

BY mid‐September when these words appear there may be the first touch of frost in the mornings : summer is irrecoverably over. There is yet, a week ahead, the Library…

Abstract

BY mid‐September when these words appear there may be the first touch of frost in the mornings : summer is irrecoverably over. There is yet, a week ahead, the Library Association Conference and not a few older librarians, who have a life‐long memory of Autumn conferences, are happy that we no longer hold them in May, that adolescent, variable month, but are able to catch again in the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness the pleasures we have had in our summer holidays this perfect year. The irony of it lies in the fact that there is precious little holiday in today's conference week ; we do not even have an excursion on the Friday. Such frivolities are beyond the great gatherings of multilateral interests that assemble. Time, too, has become almost sordidly precious.

Details

New Library World, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Roger H. Charlier and Christian P. De Meyer

Coastal sections suffering from erosion generally show the commonsymptom of a lack of available sand to allow the build up of the naturalcoastal barrier. Soft methods of…

Abstract

Coastal sections suffering from erosion generally show the common symptom of a lack of available sand to allow the build up of the natural coastal barrier. Soft methods of coastal protection, including beach nourishment, profile nourishment, feeder berms, compensation‐dredging, aim to tackle the problem at its source, i.e. by supplying sand to the system. When thoroughly designed, these methods are considered the best technical/economical and appropriate solutions.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

An overview of the current use of handwritten text recognition (HTR) on archival manuscript material, as provided by the EU H2020 funded Transkribus platform. It explains HTR, demonstrates Transkribus, gives examples of use cases, highlights the affect HTR may have on scholarship, and evidences this turning point of the advanced use of digitised heritage content. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a case study approach, using the development and delivery of the one openly available HTR platform for manuscript material.

Findings

Transkribus has demonstrated that HTR is now a useable technology that can be employed in conjunction with mass digitisation to generate accurate transcripts of archival material. Use cases are demonstrated, and a cooperative model is suggested as a way to ensure sustainability and scaling of the platform. However, funding and resourcing issues are identified.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents results from projects: further user studies could be undertaken involving interviews, surveys, etc.

Practical implications

Only HTR provided via Transkribus is covered: however, this is the only publicly available platform for HTR on individual collections of historical documents at time of writing and it represents the current state-of-the-art in this field.

Social implications

The increased access to information contained within historical texts has the potential to be transformational for both institutions and individuals.

Originality/value

This is the first published overview of how HTR is used by a wide archival studies community, reporting and showcasing current application of handwriting technology in the cultural heritage sector.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1900

A pæan of joy and triumph which speaks for itself, and which is a very true indication of how the question of poisonous adulteration is viewed by certain sections of “the…

Abstract

A pæan of joy and triumph which speaks for itself, and which is a very true indication of how the question of poisonous adulteration is viewed by certain sections of “the trade,” and by certain of the smaller and irresponsible trade organs, has appeared in print. It would seem that the thanks of “the trade” are due to the defendants in the case heard at the Liverpool Police Court for having obtained an official acknowledgment that the use of salicylic acid and of other preservatives, even in large amounts, in wines and suchlike articles, is not only allowable, but is really necessary for the proper keeping of the product. It must have been a charming change in the general proceedings at the Liverpool Court to listen to a “preservatives” case conducted before a magistrate who evidently realises that manufacturers, in these days, in order to make a “decent” profit, have to use the cheapest materials they can buy, and cannot afford to pick and choose; and that they have therefore “been compelled” to put preservatives into their articles so as to prevent their going bad. He was evidently not to be misled by the usual statement that such substances should not be used because they are injurious to health— as though that could be thought to have anything to do with the much more important fact that the public “really want” to have an article supplied to them which is cheap, and yet keeps well. Besides, many doctors and professors were brought forward to prove that they had never known a case of fatal poisoning due to the use of salicylic acid as a preservative. Unfortunately, it is only the big firms that can manage to bring forward such admirable and learned witnesses, and the smaller firms have to suffer persecution by faddists and others who attempt to obtain the public notice by pretending to be solicitous about the public health. Altogether the prosecution did not have a pleasant time, for the magistrate showed his appreciation of the evidence of one of the witnesses by humorously rallying him about his experiments with kittens, as though any‐one could presume to judge from experiments on brute beasts what would be the effect on human beings—the “lords of creation.” Everyone reading the evidence will be struck by the fact that the defendant stated that he had once tried to brew without preservatives, but with the only result that the entire lot “went bad.” All manufacturers of his own type will sympathise with him, since, of course, there is no practicable way of getting over this trouble except by the use of preservatives; although the above‐mentioned faddists are so unkind as to state that if everything is clean the article will keep. But this must surely be sheer theory, for it cannot be supposed that there can be any manufacturer of this class of article who would be foolish enough to think he could run his business at a profit, and yet go to all the expense of having the returned empties washed out before refilling, and of paying the heavy price asked for the best crude materials, when he has to compete with rival firms, who can use practically anything, and yet turn out an article equal in every way from a selling point of view, and one that will keep sufficiently, by the simple (and cheap) expedient of throwing theory on one side, and by pinning their faith to a preservative which has now received the approval of a magistrate. Manufacturers who use preservatives, whether they are makers of wines or are dairymen, and all similar tradesmen, should join together to protect their interests, for, as they must all admit, “the welfare of the trade” is the chief thing they have to consider, and any other interest must come second, if it is to come in at all. Now is the time for action, for the Commission appointed to inquire into the use of preservatives in foods has not yet given its decision, and there is still time for a properly‐conducted campaign, backed up by those “influential members of the trade” of whom we hear so much, and aided by such far‐reaching and brilliant magisterial decisions, to force these opinions prominently forward, in spite of the prejudice of the public; and to insure to the trades interested the unfettered use of preservatives,—which save “the trade” hundreds of thousands of pounds every year, by enabling the manufacturers to dispense with heavily‐priced apparatus, with extra workmen and with the use of expensive materials,—and which are urgently asked for by the public,—since we all prefer to have our foods drugged than to have them pure.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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