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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

P. Puomi, H.M. Fagerholm, J.B. Rosenholm and R. Sipilä

The performance of different pretreatment‐primer systems for hot‐dip galvanized (HDG) and Galfan coated steel has been studied. The materials were pretreated with three…

Abstract

The performance of different pretreatment‐primer systems for hot‐dip galvanized (HDG) and Galfan coated steel has been studied. The materials were pretreated with three pretreatment processes; an alkaline oxide pretreatment with either a chromate or a zirconium based post‐rinse, and a zinc phosphating pretreatment. After the pretreatment, the panels were coated with four commercially available primers. The chemically treated substrates were characterized by using ESCA and GD‐OES, and the cured paint films by using FTIR. Paint adhesion of primed panels was determined with a combined cross‐cut and impact test and also with the NMP test. Formability of the panels was tested by T‐bend test and corrosion resistance with a cyclic prohesion test. According to the prohesion test results, primed Galfan coated panels have better edge corrosion resistance than primed HDG panels. Test results also show that the effect of pre‐treatment is not as significant for the corrosion resistance as the effect of primer. However, in the case of zinc phosphated samples, excellent synergistics between the pretreatment and two of the primers was detected.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar, E.A.M. Youssef, M.M.H. Abo‐Shosa and N.A. Ibrahim

Modifies short and medium alkyd resins using perfluori‐nated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI), and incorporates the modified resins in a set of paint formulations…

Abstract

Modifies short and medium alkyd resins using perfluori‐nated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI), and incorporates the modified resins in a set of paint formulations containing different ratios of zinc phosphate as an inhibitive pigment. Achieves promising results and illustrates corrosion‐protective properties in various paint formulations and also a paint formulation free of the inhibitive pigment. Shows enhancement of the corrosion protection efficiencies by the improvement in the hydrophobicity of alkyd resin modified with PFUTI. In view of these results, minimizes or neglects the most expensive inhibitive pigments from an economical standpoint.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar, E.A.M. Youssef, M.M.H. Abo‐Shosha and N.A. Ibrahim

Short and medium alkyd resins were modified using perfluorinated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI). The modified resins were incorporated in a set of paint formulations…

Abstract

Short and medium alkyd resins were modified using perfluorinated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI). The modified resins were incorporated in a set of paint formulations containing different ratios of zinc phosphate as an inhibitive pigment. Promising results were achieved and corrosion protective properties were illustrated in various paint formulations and also in a paint formulation free of the inhibitive pigment. The corrosion protection efficiencies were enhanced by the improvement in the hydrophobicity of alkyd resin modified with perfluorinated toluene isocyanate (PFUTI). These results encourage us to minimize or neglect the most expensive inhibitive pigments from the economic point of view.

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Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

M. Abdel Rehim, H.M. Fahmy, Z.E. Mohamed, M.H. Abo‐Shosha and N.A. Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to show how to remove some dyestuffs, as pollutants, from their aqueous solutions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how to remove some dyestuffs, as pollutants, from their aqueous solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the goal, a water soluble hyperbranched poly (ester‐amide) (HBP) was synthesised using the melt polycondensation method by the reaction of maleic anhydride (MA) and diisopropanol amine (DIPA) at 140°C at a molar ratio of 1:1.3 MA: DIPA, respectively. This HBP was incorporated in the preparation of an effective microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU)/HBP adduct by crosslinking HBP with DMDHEU in presence of MCC. Furthermore, the prepared adduct was characterised by investigation its infra red and then utilised in the removal of three anionic dyestuffs from aqueous solutions, namely Irgalan Blau 3GL (an acid dye), SIRIUS Blau S‐BRR (a direct dye) and Levafix Brill Orange P‐GR (a hydrolysed reactive dye).

Findings

The results obtained revealed that the optimum conditions for preparing MCC/DMDHEU/HBP adduct are [HBP], 90 g/l; [DMDHEU], 200 g/l; LR, 1/3.3; [NC4LH], 20 g/l; a time of 30 min and a temperature of 160°C. Moreover, the results also showed that the extent of removal of such dyestuffs from their aqueous solutions by the prepared adduct follows the order: reactive dye>acid dye>direct dye, it is more pronounced at lower than at higher pH values and the removal of each dye by that adduct follows a first‐order reaction.

Research limitations/implications

Other substrates such as chitosan can be used to prepare more effective adducts.

Practical implications

Hyperbranched polymers can be used effectively to prepare ion exchangers capable of removing the pollutants of dyestuffs from their aqueous solutions.

Originality/value

The aforementioned prepared HBP is a novel hyperbranched polymer and could be applied in the removal of many other pollutants.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

M.M. Rashad, S. Hamdy and M.H. Abo-Shosha

The feasibility of obtaining a union (solid) shade with reasonable color strength and no staining on the white ground of 50/25/25 wool/linen/viscose blended fabric printed…

Abstract

The feasibility of obtaining a union (solid) shade with reasonable color strength and no staining on the white ground of 50/25/25 wool/linen/viscose blended fabric printed with Levafix® reactive dyes under different conditions was investigated. Optimum printing conditions were found to use a printing paste containing: sodium alginate (3%), 700g/kg; sodium acetate, 40g/kg; urea, 50g/kg; glycerol, 20g/kg; dye, 20 g/kg; and water, 170g/kg, followed by batching the wet prints for 24 h, before steaming at 105°C/25 minutes Batching in presence of sodium acetate brings about some physical and chemical changes in the three components of the blended fabric and the dye is distributed evenly among them to produce a solid shade with higher color strength if compared with prints in presence of sodium acetate without batching. No staining on white ground of prints was observed. Fastness properties of prints at optimum conditions are generally good to very good regarding wash, good/very good regarding rubbing (wet/dry), good regarding light, and very good regarding acidic and alkaline perspiration.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2013

N. A. Ibrahim, Z. M. El-Sayed, H. M. Fahmy, A. G. Hassabo and M. H. Abo-Shosha

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU…

Abstract

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU, 50 g/l) finishing formulation of 65/35 cotton/polyester blended fabric, enhances the resiliency of the fabric, which is expressed as the dry wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). The fabric acquires the ability to keep a rose oil fragrance upon storage up to 3 months. Improving the WRA and acquiring the ability to keep the fragrance can be descendingly arranged as follows: Siligen VN>Basosoft SWK>Leomin NI. Increasing the Siligen VN concentration (0-30 g/l) in the finishing formulation is accompanied by a small increase in the WRA, and a noticeable enhancement in the ability to keep the rose oil fragrance upon storage. By increasing the rose oil concentration (100-300 g/l) in a perfumed bath of cross-linked/Siligen VN, the softened fabric is accompanied by a slight drop in the WRA, and a decreasing ability to keep the fragrance up to 3 months.

However, the extent of the fragrance is higher at higher rose oil concentrations, regardless of the storage time. The ability of the fabric to keep the fragrance can be attributed to solubilization and/or encapsulation of the perfume in the oleophilic segments of the softener, and its slow release with time, so that the smell can be sensed. This ability decreases after increasing the storage time up to 3 months, and depending on the type of perfume oil used, is descendingly arranged as follows: jasmine oil > rose oil > sandal oil.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

M.H. Abo-Shosha, F.A. Nassar, Z. El-Sayed and A.G. Hassabo

Optimal conditions for condensation of equimolar ratios of stearic acid (St) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, i.e. 180°C, 8hrs and H2SO4, 4g/kg (reactants mixture), were…

Abstract

Optimal conditions for condensation of equimolar ratios of stearic acid (St) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, i.e. 180°C, 8hrs and H2SO4, 4g/kg (reactants mixture), were utilized to condensate the equimolar ratio of stearic (St), palmitic (Pa) or myristic (My) acid with PEG 300, 400, 600, 2000 or 6000. Each of the fifteen condensates was formed by total conversion (83.5 to 84.1 %). Monoester–diester ratios of the condensates ranged from 4:1 to 49:1. FT – IR spectroscopy and hydrophilic lipohilic balances (HLB) of the condensates were also examined. The condensates had softening and hydrophilic properties of cotton fabric with no yellowing at concentrations of 30 and 50g/l in the presence or absence of DMDHEU (50g/l). The presence of DMDHEU improved the fabric resiliency.

However, the softening and hydrophilic properties of the fabric were inferior in the presence of DMDHEU rather than the absence. In comparison with a commercial softener, PEG 2000- or 6000-based condensates were higher in fabric wettability and pliability but lower in smoothness. Regarding CRA, only My-2000 was comparable to that of the commercial softener in terms of effect.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2009

M.H. Abo-Shosha, F.A. Nassar, K.M. Haggag, Z. El-Sayed and A.G. Hassabo

Condensates of stearic (St), palmitic (Pa) or myristic (My) acids with polyethylene glycols (PEG) 300, 400, 600, 2000 or 6000, are utilized as emulsifiers for kerosene …

Abstract

Condensates of stearic (St), palmitic (Pa) or myristic (My) acids with polyethylene glycols (PEG) 300, 400, 600, 2000 or 6000, are utilized as emulsifiers for kerosene ∓ in ∓ water pigment printing pastes. Pastes based on condensates of PEG 300 or 400 are unstable while the others are stable. Rheology of stable pastes, aside from those based on a commercial emulsifier, are of a non ∓ Newtonian, shear thinning ∓ thixotropic flow. The order of the flow properties of pastes enhanced are found. Cotton pigment prints using the nine pastes are sharp and of comparable handle, colour strength and color fastness to those based on a paste of either a commercial emulsifier or synthetic thickener (except for Pa∓6000). The pigment prints of 65/35 cotton/polyester are sharp only upon using pastes of commercial emulsifier, synthetic thickener, St∓600, St∓2000, St∓6000 and My∓2000. After 7 days of storing, all pastes are stable with increased apparent viscosities and induced color strength on both cotton and blended fabrics.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

William M. Cox

Abstract

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

M.A. Abo El‐Seoud, M.F. Abdel‐Sabour and H.I. Abdel‐Shafy

Pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of different levelsof Cobalt (Co), on the growth and on the chemical constituents of peanutplants. Co was added to soil…

Abstract

Pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of different levels of Cobalt (Co), on the growth and on the chemical constituents of peanut plants. Co was added to soil at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400mg Co/kg soil. Dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, catalase activity, total proteins and free amino acids content, carbohydrates and sugars and mineral contents were determined in roots, stems and leaves of the plant. Results showed that soil polluted with higher rates of Co depressed plant growth in terms of dry matter production. However, the relatively low levels of Co increased the dry matter accumulation. The results obtained indicated high accumulation of Co in plant, although the level of Co in the soil was added in relatively low concentrations. On the other hand, plant chemical constituents exhibited different responses according to plant organ and Co application rate. In addition, the interaction effect both Co and Ni on the mineral content of peanuts was investigated.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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