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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Safa A.M. AlHusban and Ahmad A.S. AlHusban

The purposes of this research were to review, analyze, synthesize and define the principles, indicators and required design elements of crime prevention through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this research were to review, analyze, synthesize and define the principles, indicators and required design elements of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) and the potential role of the design of the courtyards in preventing campus violence; to examine the relationships between built environment design and campus violence inside Al al-Bayt University (AABU), Jordan; and to examine to what extent the design of the open public spaces and courtyards inside AABU meet the design principles of the CPTED.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used descriptive-analytical approach, semi-structured interviews, archival records and videos to collect the location-based data of violent events and incidents that occurred on the campus of AABU (the locations of students' fights). Additionally, this research used AABU images; plans, spatial analysis, site visits and direct observations to analyze and assess the courtyards’ design and to examine to what extent the design of courtyards and open public spaces in AABU achieve the CPTED indicators, and the availability and the quality of the required design elements of CPTED and their role in violence prevention.

Findings

This research found that environmental-based design plays a major role in reducing crime opportunities and promote positive social behavior. This research found that the indicators to achieve the CPTED principles in all courtyard design inside AABU are very low and all the courtyards’ designs are not complied and conformed to the CPTED principles, and as a result, the design of the courtyards encourages and may facilitate violence in the university campus. It has been found that the availability and the quality of the required CPTED design elements are very low in all courtyards. Therefore, the existing design elements in all courtyards in AABU are not preventing the university violence. The correlation result revealed that there is significant relationship and strong/very strong negative linear association between the numbers of the students' fights and the applying of CPTED principles, indicators and required design elements (r = −0.85).

Research limitations/implications

The data collected from AABU campus only and a larger study is certainly required to underpin these findings. Therefore, future research is needed to replicate and duplicate this research in order to expand the results.

Practical implications

This research has implications for designing/redesigning the open public space and courtyards inside universities. This research recommended that redesigning all courtyards and applying the principles of CPTED are necessary to prevent campus violence. Redesigning includes adding landscaping elements, fountains, water features, pedestrian furniture, portrait, setting areas, new modern sculptures, shaded areas, lighting, memorial places, digital screens and cameras. Moreover, this research recommended that the university should pay more attention to continuous control, repair and maintenance to all courtyards after redesigning them. Finally, this research introduced a design proposal for one of the courtyards to apply the CPTED principles that promote positive behavior and prevent campus violence.

Originality/value

In the last few years in Jordan, some of the public and private Jordanian universities suffered from a newly emerging negative phenomenon, which is violence between students inside the campus. Many researchers and governmental institutions have stressed the urgency to explore the social, cultural, behavioral and environmental strategies that may effectively prevent campus violence. Additionally, little attention has been paid to the role of built environmental design in preventing campus violence. Moreover, no research assesses the applying of the CPTED principles and their indicators in courtyards’ design in Jordanian campuses.

Details

Property Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

R. Benhadj, B. Dawson and M.M.A. Safa

The mainstream of current research work in array tactile sensors concentrates on using a soft compliant membrane as a means of transmitting the effect of variable external…

Abstract

The mainstream of current research work in array tactile sensors concentrates on using a soft compliant membrane as a means of transmitting the effect of variable external stimuli to the discrete sensing elements. The soft compliant devices are usually made of a thin flexible substrate such as pressure sensitive pads, conductive materials, conductive coatings, piezoelectric polymers or elastomers. A large number of tactile sensor designs using these types of materials have been investigated by researchers. These include the use of anisotropically conductive silicone rubber (ACS), sponges containing carbon particles or felted carbon fibres, piezoelectric polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) and conductive elastomers such as Dynacom materials consisting of silicone rubber mixed with metallic compounds.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Erika Anneli Pärn and David Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated sector. Such devices are inextricably linked to modern digital built environment practices, particularly when used in conjunction with as-built building information modelling (BIM) development. The research also reports upon innovative technological advancements (such as machine vision) that coalesce with 3D scanning solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of literature is used to develop: a hierarchy of the modes of delivery for laser scan devices; a thematic analysis of 3D terrestrial laser scan technology applications; and a componential cross-comparative tabulation of laser scan technology and specifications.

Findings

Findings reveal that the costly and labour intensive attributes of laser scanning devices have stimulated the development of hybrid automated and intelligent technologies to improve performance. Such developments are set to satisfy the increasing demand for digitisation of both existing and new buildings into BIM. Future work proposed will seek to: review what coalescence of digital technologies will provide an optimal and cost-effective solution to accurately re-constructing the digital built environment; conduct case studies that implement hybrid digital solutions in pragmatic facilities management scenarios to measure their performance and user satisfaction; and eliminate manual remodelling tasks (such as point cloud reconstruction) via the use of computational intelligence algorithms integral within cloud-based BIM platforms.

Originality/value

Although laser scanning and 3D modelling have been widely covered en passant within the literature, scant research has conducted a holistic review of the technology, its applications and future developments. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Li‐Ming Chu, Hsiang‐Chen Hsu, Jaw‐Ren Lin and Yuh‐Ping Chang

The purpose of this paper is to describe an inverse approach to estimate the pressure distribution, temperature distribution, and pressure‐viscosity index (z) in a thermal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe an inverse approach to estimate the pressure distribution, temperature distribution, and pressure‐viscosity index (z) in a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) line contact.

Design/methodology/approach

Once the film thickness is given, the pressure distribution can be calculated using the inverse approach. Subsequently, thermal expansivity and temperature‐viscosity coefficient of lubricant are given, and then the z is guessed initially. The Gauss‐Seidel iteration is employed to calculate the temperature distribution from the rheology, energy, and surface temperature equations. In order to increase the algorithm stability, the least‐squares method must be employed to calculate the optimum value of the z in the computational domain. Furthermore, the pressure‐viscosity index must be updated by the iteration method to calculate accurate temperature distribution and apparent viscosity until convergence.

Findings

This approach presents a smooth curve of the pressure and temperature distributions with the measurement error from the resolution in the film thickness measurement and z value. Furthermore, this approach still provides a superior solution in apparent viscosity, whereas the direct method provides a much larger error in apparent viscosity.

Originality/value

The paper describes an inverse approach to estimate the pressure distribution, temperature distribution, and pressure‐viscosity index in a TEHL line contact. This approach overcomes the problems of pressure and temperature rise fluctuations and generates accurate results of pressure and temperature distribution from a small number of measured points of film thickness, which also saves computing time. Furthermore, this approach still provides a superior solution in apparent viscosity.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Ru Liang and Heap-Yih Chong

Green supplier selection is one of the crucial activities in green supply chain management. However, limited studies have addressed the vagueness and complexities during…

Abstract

Purpose

Green supplier selection is one of the crucial activities in green supply chain management. However, limited studies have addressed the vagueness and complexities during the selection process, particularly in multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) circumstances. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to develop a group decision model using a modified fuzzy MCDM approach for green supplier selection under a complex situation.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed study develops a framework for sorting decisions in green supplier selection by using the hesitant fuzzy qualitative flexible multiple attributes method (QUALIFLEX). The synthetic consistent or inconsistent indexes were used to calculate all alternative suppliers by normalizing the hesitant fuzzy decision matrix.

Findings

The proposed framework has been successfully applied and illustrated in the case example of CB02 contract section in Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge project. The results show various complicated decision-making scenarios can be addressed through the proposed approach. The synthetic (in)consistent indexes are able to calculate all alternative suppliers by normalizing the hesitant fuzzy decision matrix.

Originality/value

The research contributes to improving accuracy and reliability decision-making processes for green supplier selection, especially under vagueness and complex situations in megaprojects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Saeed Akbari, Mostafa Khanzadi and Mohammad Reza Gholamian

To address requirements and specifications of construction project, academics need to build a project classification model. In recent years, project success concept…

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Abstract

Purpose

To address requirements and specifications of construction project, academics need to build a project classification model. In recent years, project success concept, particularly on large-scale construction projects, has been a controversial issue, especially in developing countries. Hence, in this paper, after introducing a sustainable success index (SSI), a novel method called “rough set approach” had been adopted to induce decision rules and to classify construction projects. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, 20 effective success factors and 15 success criteria based on three pillars of sustainability of economy, society and environment had been categorized. The research data used for analysis had been collected from 26 large-scale construction projects in Iran and five other countries. After collecting data collection, observations had been analyzed and 51 decision rules were generated, and the projects were classified. Eventually, in order to evaluate the performance of the generated rules, confusion matrix was applied, and the model was validated.

Findings

The results of the present study show that rough set theory (RST) can be an effective and valuable tool for building expert systems. Practical applications of these results along with limitations and future research are described.

Originality/value

Perhaps for the first time, in the present study, a number of large-scale construction projects are classified based on SSI. Applying RST for building rule-based system and classifying projects in construction project area are novel attempts undertaken in this paper. The rules induced in this study can be applied to develop a sustainable success prediction model in the future studies.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Li‐Ming Chu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the pure squeeze thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication (TFEHL) motion of circular contacts with adsorption layers attached to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the pure squeeze thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication (TFEHL) motion of circular contacts with adsorption layers attached to each surface under constant load condition. The proposed model can reasonably calculate the pressure distributions, film thicknesses, normal squeeze velocities, and effective viscosities during the pure squeeze process under thin film lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

The transient modified Reynolds equation is derived in polar coordinates using viscous adsorption theory. The finite difference method and the Gauss‐Seidel iteration method are used to solve the transient modified Reynolds equation, the elasticity deformation equation, load balance equation, and lubricant rheology equations simultaneously.

Findings

The simulation results reveal that the thickness of the adsorption layer and the viscosity ratio significantly influence the lubrication characteristics of the contact conjunction in the thin film regime. In additional, the turning points in the film thickness which distinguish thin film lubrication from elastohydrodynamic lubrication curve is found. In thin film region, the effective viscosity predicted by present model is better than that predicted by traditional elastohydrodynamic theory.

Originality/value

The paper develops a numerical method for general applications with adsorption layers attached to each surface to investigate the pure squeeze action in a TFEHL spherical conjunction under constant load condition.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

AbdulRahman Asaad and Sameh Monir El-Sayegh

This paper aims to identify and assess the key criteria for selecting green suppliers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) construction industry.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and assess the key criteria for selecting green suppliers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 criteria were identified and shortlisted through an extensive literature review. These criteria were grouped into four categories: technical and commercial bid, company characteristics, environmental and socioeconomic. A questionnaire was then developed and distributed to construction professionals in the UAE. A total of 39 professionals responded to the survey including contractors, consultants, owners and suppliers. The respondents performed pairwise comparisons among the selection criteria. Data was then analyzed using the Expert Choice Software.

Findings

The research findings highlighted that the technical and commercial bid category was ranked as the most important with a weight of 0.338, followed by socioeconomic, company characteristics and environmental categories weighing 0.239, 0.225 and 0.199, respectively. The UAE construction professionals also ranked health and safety, material’s quality and tender price as the top three most important criteria when selecting a sustainable supplier.

Practical implications

This research addresses the lack of literature toward green supplier selection in the UAE. In addition, it assists contractors in selecting the appropriate supplier and promotes sustainable practices in the construction industry.

Originality/value

Material suppliers play an important role in the successful delivery of construction projects. Selecting the appropriate supplier is of paramount importance to project success. Several methods can be used to evaluate and select the best-fit suppliers. However, the selection criteria in such methods are primarily based on traditional construction projects rather than sustainable construction projects. Recently, there is an increase in the number of sustainable construction projects in the UAE. Therefore, identifying and assessing the key criteria for selecting green suppliers is needed. This paper fills the gap in literature as to selecting green suppliers in construction projects.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Dipa Mulia, Hardius Usman and Novia Budi Parwanto

The purposes of this study are to develop an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) model by adding customer intimacy, perceived risk, trust and Sharia compliance as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study are to develop an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) model by adding customer intimacy, perceived risk, trust and Sharia compliance as external variables, in which TAM is used as the evaluation method for the use of e-banking and m-banking by customers of Islamic bank; and to study the role of customer intimacy in increasing satisfaction and encouraging loyalty of Islamic bank customers in using e-banking and m-banking.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection is carried out by the self-administered survey method with Islamic bank customers as target population. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple linear regression are applied for data analysis.

Findings

Customer intimacy not only encourages the emergence of customer loyalty directly, but also affects the factors that determine customer loyalty itself, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk, trust, sharia compliance and satisfaction. In other words, customer intimacy has a direct and indirect influence on loyalty.

Originality/value

This paper offers an extended TAM constructs to study the role of customer intimacy in increasing loyalty by considering various variables, namely, perceived risk, trust, Sharia compliance and satisfaction. Similar research is still very limited in the banking marketing literature, especially in Islamic banks context.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Mohammad Khalilzadeh and Hadis Derikvand

Globalization of markets and pace of technological change have caused the growing importance of paying attention to supplier selection problem. Therefore, this study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Globalization of markets and pace of technological change have caused the growing importance of paying attention to supplier selection problem. Therefore, this study aims to choose the best suppliers by providing a mathematical model for the supplier selection problem considering the green factors and stochastic parameters. This paper aims to propose a multi-objective model to identify optimal suppliers for a green supply chain network under uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this model is to select suppliers considering total cost, total quality parts and total greenhouse gas emissions. Also, uncertainty is tackled by stochastic programming, and the multi-objective model is solved as a single-objective model by the LP-metric method.

Findings

Twelve numerical examples are provided, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed mathematical model. Results indicate that with increasing market numbers and final product numbers, the total objective function value and run time increase. In case that decision-makers are willing to deal with uncertainty with higher reliability, they should consider whole environmental conditions as input parameters. Therefore, when the number of scenarios increases, the total objective function value increases. Besides, the trade-off between cost function and other objective functions is studied. Also, the benefit of the stochastic programming approach is proved. To show the applicability of the proposed model, different modes are defined and compared with the proposed model, and the results demonstrate that the increasing use of recyclable parts and application of the recycling strategy yield more economic savings and less costs.

Originality/value

This paper aims to present a more comprehensive model based on real-world conditions for the supplier selection problem in green supply chain under uncertainty. In addition to economic issue, environmental issue is considered from different aspects such as selecting the environment-friendly suppliers, purchasing from them and taking the probability of defective finished products and goods from suppliers into account.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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