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Article

M.M. Metwally

Introduction Although there is no Muslim country, at present, which can be called an Islamic economy, in the sense of following, in a strict fashion, the teachings of the…

Abstract

Introduction Although there is no Muslim country, at present, which can be called an Islamic economy, in the sense of following, in a strict fashion, the teachings of the Qur'an, the traditions of Prophet Muhammad and the practices of early Muslims, a majority of Muslim consumers would seem to hold to Islamic values and views regarding the disposal of their incomes. The aim of this paper is to throw some light on the effect of this behaviour on optimal consumption of a Muslim individual. The paper is divided into three sections. Section one briefly summarises the economic behaviour of a non‐religious (rational) consumer. Section two discusses the utility function of a Muslim consumer and highlights the differences between this function and that of a non‐Muslim consumer. Section three determines the conditions of optimum consumption of a Muslim consumer.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

Abdelmoneim Bahyeldin Mohamed Metwally, Ahmed Diab and Mostafa Kayed Mohamed

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on transforming accountability, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and office operation and control. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on transforming accountability, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and office operation and control. This paper explains how unleashing the rationality of health and safety along with internal CSR made the transformation to telework successfully operable in a periphery of a western multinational corporation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon the theories of governmentality and social accountability. It adopts an interpretative qualitative research approach and uses the case study method. Data were collected from one of the biggest private sector telecommunication companies in Egypt.

Findings

This study finds that Covid-19 and its related health and safety discourse represented a good rationale for the western home office to accelerate the initiation of its office transformation plan to reach full working from home policy in a less developed country peripheral subsidiary. Under the guise of CSR, the company spent a large budget to make this transformation quickly operable, while its Egyptian subsidiary is financially distressed. Moreover, the company achieved its objectives from this new rationality as employees currently prefer the telework mode which reduces the company costs in the long run.

Practical implications

The study provides practitioners with evidence and practicable knowledge regarding the impact of Covid-19 on office reconfiguration and the ways used to achieve this in the Egyptian telecommunication sector.

Originality/value

The current study extends the governmentality literature by illustrating that transformation to telework in emerging markets is an operational manifestation of cost reduction and efficiency rationality under the guise of CSR. Moreover, it extends the office transformation literature by bringing early evidence regarding office transition plans during COVID-19 in an emerging market.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article

M.M. Metwally and Rick Tamaschke

This paper examines the trade relationship between the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the European Union (EU). A simultaneous equation regression model is developed…

Abstract

This paper examines the trade relationship between the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the European Union (EU). A simultaneous equation regression model is developed and estimated to assist with the analysis. The regression results, using both the two stage least squares (2SLS) and ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation methods, reveal the existence of feedback effects between the two economic integrations. The results also show that during times of slack in oil prices, the GCC income from its investments overseas helped to finance its imports from the EU.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article

Ali M. Metwalli and Roger Y.W. Tang

This paper provides an overview of the merger and acquisition (M&A) activity of Middle‐Eastern (M.E.) countries from 1990 to 2000. The following information is presented: M

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the merger and acquisition (M&A) activity of Middle‐Eastern (M.E.) countries from 1990 to 2000. The following information is presented: M&A transactions by the nationality and industries of the target firms; home countries and industries of the acquiring firms and the acquisition methods. The largest twenty mergers and acquisitions in the Middle East during the 1990–2000 period are identified. The paper also compares the M&A activity in four important countries (Egypt, Israel, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). Learning the M&A activity in the Middle East is essential in identifying target or acquirers, and conducting future M&A transactions.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article

M.M. Metwally

A growing number of Muslim countries are expressing the desire, and even in some cases taking serious actions, to turn to strict Islamic laws and teachings in modelling…

Abstract

A growing number of Muslim countries are expressing the desire, and even in some cases taking serious actions, to turn to strict Islamic laws and teachings in modelling their way of life including their economic behaviour. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the economic implications of these laws i.e. the teachings of the Holy Qur'an, the traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and the practices of early Muslims. In particular, some are concerned that the application of Shariah could impair the economy's ability to accumulate capital since Islamic principles aim at the establishment of a greater degree of social and economic justice through continuous redistribution of income and wealth in favour of the poor and needy. First, Islam does not favour the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few. The Qur'an says,“… in order that it (i.e. wealth) may not merely make a circuit between the wealthy among you”, secondly, Muslims must contribute a proportion of their income and wealth called “Zakat” for the use of the poor and needy. “Keep up prayer and pay Zakat” is the constant term of the Holy Qur'an. There are at least twenty‐seven passages in the Holy Qur'an where the order to pay Zakat and the order to establish prayer occur jointly. Thirdly, Islam urges the believers to spend generously in the cause of God i.e. on the poor and needy. Thus the Qur'an says, “Speak to my servants who have believed that they may establish regular prayers and spend in charity out of substance” (Chapter 14, Verse 31). The Qur'an also says, “Believe in God and His Prophet and spend in charity out of the substance whereof He has made you heirs. For those of you who believe and spend in charity is a great reward”. The reward for spending in charity is specified in Chapter 2, Verse 261, where God says, “The parable of those who spend their substance in the way of God is that of a grain of corn; it groweth seven ears, and each ear hath a hundred grains. God giveth manifold increase to whom he pleaseth; and God careth for all and He knoweth all things”. Fourthly, Islam urges the wealthy to lend God “beautiful loans” in the form of spending in charity. Thus the Qur'an says, “If ye loan to God a beautiful loan, He will double it to your credit and He will grant your forgiveness. For God is most ready to appreciate service, most forebearing”.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

M.M. Metwally

The Australian banking system was subject to extensive measures ofderegulation in the 1980s. As a result there has been a dramaticincrease in marketing research and a…

Abstract

The Australian banking system was subject to extensive measures of deregulation in the 1980s. As a result there has been a dramatic increase in marketing research and a tendency to rely more on advertising in maintaining and expanding market shares. Attempts to measure the effectiveness of the advertising of a number of Australian banks. Tests static and dynamic optimal advertising criteria and examines, using a simultaneous‐equations model, the interdependence between market shares and advertising of Australian banks. Short‐term analysis seems to suggest that the actual advertising/revenue ratios of Australian banks are much higher than the optimal ratios. Also Australian banks seem to follow a long‐run profit maximization policy with respect to their advertising expenditure. The banks seem to give a positive shadow price to the stock of goodwill. Moreoever, both banks and rival advertising exert a significant influence on the competitive position of Australian banks, as given by their market shares. Also shows that rates of return on the advertising of the small banks are much lower than those of the large banks.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article

A.Z. Gomaa, M.M. Metwally, M. Moustafa and M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar

Insecticides are chemicals that are used to control damage or annoyance from insects. Generally, control is achieved by poisoning the insects by oral ingestion of stomach…

Abstract

Insecticides are chemicals that are used to control damage or annoyance from insects. Generally, control is achieved by poisoning the insects by oral ingestion of stomach poisons, by contact poisons that penetrate through the cuticle, or by fumigants that penetrate through the respiratory system. Pojurowsky Leon has made wall paper washproof and contact‐insecticidal coating compositions by addition of 1–12% insecticide solutions in polar organic solvents in 15–45% amounts by usual vinyl‐acrylic or oil type emulsion lacquers. Coating dye compositions dispersible, in water and containing (MeO)2P(O)CH(OH)CC13 with lasting insecticide effect were prepared by Bozzay Jazsel, et al. In 1986, Lee, et al, have performed aqueous emulsions of insecticidal activity, containing hydrophilic silicone organic copolymer elastomer. Recently Moustafa, M., et al prepared and evaluated various coating compositions for their insecticidal activity. The binders used are chlorinated rubber, polyurethane and alkyd resins. Three kinds of insecticides with trade names sumicidin, sumithion and cyanox were studied. Cockroaches were the target insect. They showed that compositions based on alkyd or chlorinated rubber and containing 4% cyanox or sumithion as insecticide showed promising results as insecticidal and insect repellent coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Shafiu Ibrahim Abdullahi

This paper explores the role of Zakah in social cause marketing. Academic literature on Islamic economics, finance and management mostly deals with the links that exists…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the role of Zakah in social cause marketing. Academic literature on Islamic economics, finance and management mostly deals with the links that exists between Zakah and consumption, neglecting important and strategic links with social cause marketing. This paper emanated from need to outline social cause and the charitable role of Zakah in promoting Halal businesses, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Most works in the field of Zakah did not foresee the role of marketing. This is a misjudgement, as this work showed that Zakah yields large and measurable social gains to help the society and a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary sources were used in writing this paper. Available literature in the form of journals, books, manuals and reports was referred to. As a conceptual work, the paper does not test hypothesis or pretends to provide empirical evidences. It uses mathematical economics in arriving at some of the conclusions. Findings were derived through deductions and critical discourses, not through crunching of primary data.

Findings

The paper shows how Zakah, Halal consumption and corporate social responsibility are connected and highlights the role of Zakah as a social marketing tool. It shows how Zakah affects consumption through marginal propensity of Zakah recipients who spend Zakah money on basic needs.

Research limitations/implications

The paper looks at the broad aspects of Zakah and social marketing. How to make Zakah a pillar of Islamic firms’ social cause programs shall be the focus of future academic works in this area.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in drawing attention of Islamic firms to the effectiveness of Zakah in building a corporate image. It draws the attention of firms, activists, academics and governments to functions of Zakah that have not been studied in depth.

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Article

Roger Y.W. Tang and Ali M. Metwalli

– The purpose of this paper is to provide the latest information on mergers and acquisition (M&A) activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the latest information on mergers and acquisition (M&A) activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data available from Thomson Financial Service's Worldwide Mergers and Acquisitions database, the paper analyzed M&A transactions listed in the database that were announced between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, in which the target firm or acquirer was located in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh.

Findings

M&A in India is a lot more active than that in Pakistan or Bangladesh. One unique feature of Pakistani M&A market is that it has a high ratio (more than 80 percent) for Pakistani firms buying non-Pakistani companies. In Bangladesh, non-Bangladeshi firms acquiring Bangladeshi companies accounted for more than 90 percent of all large M&A value.

Originality/value

The paper provides the latest information on M&A activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009. Some similarities and differences among the three countries were compared and discussed.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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Article

Abdul Kareem Al‐Safar

This paper expands on the application of non‐linear programming to cover the equilibrium of a firm operating according to Islamic laws (Sharia). Islamic teachings impose…

Abstract

This paper expands on the application of non‐linear programming to cover the equilibrium of a firm operating according to Islamic laws (Sharia). Islamic teachings impose certain constraints that have serious economic applications. Kuhn‐Tucker conditions reveal that the equilibrium of an Islamic firm is quite different from that of a traditional (non‐Islamic) firm. In particular, optimality of an Islamic firm will result in greater output and higher prices relative to those of its non‐Islamic counterpart.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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