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Kano River basin, which serves as the main source of water supply to metropolitan Kano, is also used as receiving body for industrial wastes from Sharada and Challawa…
Kano River basin, which serves as the main source of water supply to metropolitan Kano, is also used as receiving body for industrial wastes from Sharada and Challawa industrial estates. Of the three major rivers in this basin, the Salanta river was found to receive the highest pollution from the industrial discharges with COD of 8,557.4mg/l, total solids of 16,934.6mg/l, hardness of 1,349.6mg/l CaCO3, and ammonia nitrogen of 5,150.0mg/l. The Challawa river had COD of 598.7mg/l, total solids of 1,609.9mg/l, hardness of 1,332.0mg/l CaCO3 and ammonia‐nitrogen 400mg/l. Both empty into the Kano river where the COD was 1,166.9mg/l, total solids 1,458.0mg/l, hardness 2,506.8mg/l and ammonia‐nitrogen 530mg/l. Although these rivers are being used extensively for water supply, irrigation, and fishing, the quality of the water was found to be unsuitable for these purposes. The paper suggests that waste water pre‐treatment by all industries, imposition of direct charges on industrial effluents by the regulating agency, as well as continuous monitoring and surveillance are required to ensure the protection of the water resources in the basin.
The importance of housing in enhancing the quality of life has been widely reported. It represents one of the basic human needs, provides protection from harm and ensures…
The importance of housing in enhancing the quality of life has been widely reported. It represents one of the basic human needs, provides protection from harm and ensures survival. Like many developing countries, different Ghanaian governments have variously pursued several programs and interventionsdirected at addressing the country's housing challenges including housing loan schemes in the colonial era to affordable housing projects in the 2000s. Notwithstanding, access to adequate housing for the low to middle-income groups still remains unresolved. This paper is an attempt to gain deeper insights into Ghana's housing situation, its challenges and the efforts made by governments during the periods before independence and after independence. The nature of the housing policies implemented during such eras is explored and the reasons for the implementation failures examined. In the end, the paper provides policy recommendations that could potentially help increase the supply of affordable urban housing in the country. The paper calls for a strong political will and pragmatic intelligence in the implementation of housing policies and programs in the country. Mechanisms to provide sufficienthousing finance for the poor to adequately participate in the housing market have also been outlined. It is concluded that the over-empowerment of the private real estate sector to be the major providers of housing may not be optimal. Rather, it would only lead to the inability of the poor to be able to actively participate in the housing market, consequently exacerbating housing poverty. Effective public-private partnership has the potential to guarantee the supply of reasonably-priced and affordable housing provision.
Social interaction is a vital facet of life for all age‐groups; for older individuals, the exercise of interpersonal exchange, and the expectation of an accompanying sense…
Social interaction is a vital facet of life for all age‐groups; for older individuals, the exercise of interpersonal exchange, and the expectation of an accompanying sense of well‐being, can assume an even greater importance when other aspects of life no longer provide opportunities for positive reward. Sociability experiences are likely to influence major indicators of both emotion and cognition, such as life and context satisfaction. The demonstration of personal competence, as may be found in the exercise of problem‐solving strategies, is also an important facility for seniors. This study of both domestic and international senior tourists has examined preferences for travel planning as the expression of a measure of personal control that are associated with sociability needs in regard to family and friends, cultural contacts, entertainment and nightlife, and to retail experiences. Also examined was the extent to which various sociability needs and planning control preferences influence measures of destination satisfaction, intention to return and also a willingness to recommend the destination. This study has found that seniors with higher sociability needs for cultural contact and associated with family and friends would more likely perceive the necessity to prepare for their trip, and also would express higher levels of satisfaction; destination satisfaction was also found to be associated with both the expressed intention to return to the destination, and also a willingness to recommend the destination to others; travel planning was not found to be associated with destination evaluative measures. Implications of these findings for destination managers and for researchers in the senior travel domain are considered.
Recent lapses in the management of high hazard organizations, such as the Fukushima event or the Deepwater Horizon blast, add considerable urgency to better understand the…
Recent lapses in the management of high hazard organizations, such as the Fukushima event or the Deepwater Horizon blast, add considerable urgency to better understand the complicated and complex phenomena of leading and managing high reliability organizations (HRO). The purpose of this paper is to offer both theoretical and practical insight to further strengthen reliability in high hazard organizations.
Phenomenological study based on over three years of research and thousands of hours of study in HROs conducted through a scholar-practitioner partnership.
The findings indicate that the identification and the management of competing tensions arising from misalignment within and between public policy, organizational strategy, communication, decision-making, organizational learning, and leadership is the critical factor in explaining improved reliability and safety of HROs.
Stops short of full-blown grounded theory. Steps were made to ensure validity; however, generalizability may be limited due to sample.
Provides insight into reliably operating organizations that are crucial to society where errors would cause significant damage or loss.
Extends high reliability research by investigating more fully the competing tensions present in these complex, societally crucial organizations.
In light of and due to the spike in concern regarding high hazard industries, in general, and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in particular, resulting from the Japanese…
In light of and due to the spike in concern regarding high hazard industries, in general, and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in particular, resulting from the Japanese earthquake and crisis at Fukushima, the purpose of this paper is to offer an innovative organizational development (OD) intervention that may enhance safety and operational performance directed at these critical organizations.
Drawing on and integrating key elements of strategy, leadership coaching and development and assessment, the authors describe and detail an intervention designed to bring a troubled NPP to a state of reliability.
It was found that performance improved in a relatively short amount of time from implementing this OD tool.
The findings contained herein may apply to any organization aiming to improve on safety and operational performance.
The paper's findings should appeal to high hazard and high reliability organizations, such as those found within the energy industry, that must continuously strive toward improved operational and safety performance.
From the heaps of garbage in street corners and highways, to blocked drains and obstructed waterways, Nigerian cities continue to bear marks of environmental degradation…
From the heaps of garbage in street corners and highways, to blocked drains and obstructed waterways, Nigerian cities continue to bear marks of environmental degradation occasioned by the business activities of manufacturers. Globally, the picture is no less different as landfills, oceans and beaches bear indubitable testimonies of plastic pollution. While the manufacturers smile to the bank, governments and municipal authorities struggle with their meagre resources to combat the colossal burden of plastic pollution they generated in the course of creating wealth. The use of non-biodegradable materials such as polythene in product packaging is the primary driver of manufacturing-induced environmental degradation in Nigerian cities and other cities of the world. Recent developments in commerce in Nigeria, such as the emergence of the mobile supermarket, are responsible for the geometric increase in street filthiness in the country. Developing strategic alliances amongst Nigerian manufacturers or between manufacturers and municipal authorities is key in ensuring a healthy environment while doing business. However, such alliances must take a clue from the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) embodied in the environmental consciousness practised in local markets in Nigeria, hereafter referred to as the ‘market-place model’ for environmental stewardship. This model, when replicated in other economies across the globe, would significantly reduce the global burden of plastic wastes and the hazards they pose in the environment. Conscience repayment, provision of refuse collection points, recycling and green packaging are part of ways of operationalising this model in everyday business. Adopting the market-place model in building strategic alliances for environmental stewardship would afford Nigerian manufacturers, and indeed global manufacturers, financial and non-financial business benefits such as cost savings through eco-efficiency, enlightened self-interest and good corporate image.
This chapter describes an undergraduate peer-to-peer mentoring program, UniMentor, at a regional Australian university, which aims to support students in equity groups…
This chapter describes an undergraduate peer-to-peer mentoring program, UniMentor, at a regional Australian university, which aims to support students in equity groups. Key benefits identified are: enhanced retention rates; improved academic performance; and strengthened social networks. While the focus is on commencing students (mentees), significant positive outcomes for third-year mentors are also apparent. Internal and external challenges that may influence access to mentoring among students include shifting institutional support and roles and curriculum change. Enablers include training, clarity of purpose, strong support networks, and fostering student sense of ownership. The effect of disciplinary culture on uptake and effectiveness of mentoring is also important. Overall, the program compares well against published frameworks of successful student mentoring. Nevertheless, critical questions remain regarding the effectiveness of general versus targeted mentoring programs for students in equity groups.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the form of young male socialisation referred to as birzha, in its relation to public space in Georgia. Birzha defines a group…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the form of young male socialisation referred to as birzha, in its relation to public space in Georgia. Birzha defines a group of young men who meet regularly in urban open spaces in Tbilisi’s neighbourhoods. Partly considered as the initial step of a criminal career, belonging to birzha is a mark of identification with one’s local group. The contested nature of public space is illustrated by the conflicting relation between birzha’s bottom-up use of public space and top-down projects of urban renovation sought by Saakashvili’s government.
Drawing upon literary and media sources, and analysing fieldwork data collected in 2008-2009 and 2014, this study explores how the announced (re)construction of public space under Saakashvili resulted in institutional interventions from above which curtailed public space’s accessibility.
The present analysis points out contradictions in Saakashvili’s government’s political narrative on public space. In the institutional focus on a future of order, transparency, and democracy, birzha is an insistent reminder of an informal and corrupted past. Banned from futuristic projections of the public space, in the present birzha is annihilated by state repression, enforced in opaque zones out of public sight.
Focusing on a largely overlooked phenomenon in social science research, the paper highlights the ways in which conflicting approaches to public space affect the relation between political institutions and citizens. Delving into ambivalent public/private divides in post-socialist societies, the study of Georgian birzha offers an original angle for investigating the contestation of urban public space in relation to political legitimacy and transparency.