Search results

1 – 10 of 306
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

M.F. Rahmat and N.S. Kamaruddin

The use of pneumatic conveying of solid bulk over long distance has become a popular technique due to low operational cost, low maintenance requirement, layout flexibility…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of pneumatic conveying of solid bulk over long distance has become a popular technique due to low operational cost, low maintenance requirement, layout flexibility and ease of automation. The purpose of this paper is to identifity the flow regime in a pneumatic conveyor system by electrodynamic sensor placed around the pipe using fuzzy logic tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Electrical charge tomography is used to detect the existence of inherent charge on the moving particles through the pipe. Linear back projection algorithm and filtered back projection algorithm are employed to produce tomography image. Baffles of different shapes are inserted to create various flow regimes, such as full flow, three quarter flow, half flow and quarter flow. Fuzzy logic tools are used to identify different flow regimes and produce filtered back concentration profiles for each flow regime.

Findings

The results show significant improvement in the pipe flow image resolution and measurement.

Originality/value

This paper presents a flow identifier method using electrical charge tomography and fuzzy logic to monitor solid particles flow in pipeline.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Iliya Tizhe Thuku, Mohd Fua'ad Rahmat, Norhaliza Abdul Wahab, Teimour Tajdari and Abdulrahamam Amuda Yusuf

Circular pipelines are mostly used for pneumatic conveyance in industrial processes. For optimum and efficient production in industries that use a pipeline for conveyance…

Abstract

Purpose

Circular pipelines are mostly used for pneumatic conveyance in industrial processes. For optimum and efficient production in industries that use a pipeline for conveyance, tomographic image of the transport particles is paramount. Sensing mechanism plays a vital role in process tomography. The purpose of this paper is to present a two‐dimensional (2‐D) model for sensing the characteristics of electrostatic sensors for electrical charge tomography system. The proposed model uses the finite‐element method.

Design/methodology/approach

The domain is discretized into discrete shapes, called finite elements, by using a MATLAB. Each of these elements is taken as image pixels, on which the electric charges carried by conveyed particles are transformed into equations. The charges' interaction and the sensors installed around the circumference, at the sensing zone of the conveying pipeline are related by the proposed model equations. A matrix compression technique was also introduced to solve the problem of unevenly sensing characteristics of the sensors due to elements' number's concentration. The model equations were used to simulate the modeled electrostatic charge distribution carried by the particles moving in the pipeline.

Findings

The simulated results show that the proposed sensors are highly sensitive to electrostatic charge at any position in the sensing zone, thereby making it a good candidate for tomographic image reconstruction.

Originality/value

Tomographic imaging using finite element method is found to be more accurate and reliable compared to linear and filtered back projection method.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 March 2014

M. Khairalla, M.F. Rahmat, N. Abdul Wahab, I.T. Thuku, T. Tajdari and Abdulrahman Amuda Yusuf

An identification model for materials flow through a pipeline is presented in this paper. The development of the model involves fuzzy C-means clustering, in which…

Abstract

Purpose

An identification model for materials flow through a pipeline is presented in this paper. The development of the model involves fuzzy C-means clustering, in which different flow regimes can be identified by every adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

For experimentation, 16 electrodynamic sensors were used to monitor and measure the charge carried by dense particles flow through a pipeline in a vertical gravity flow rig system. Four ANFIS models were also used simultaneously to provide the expected output on thresh-holding and were evaluated for ten different flow regimes, which produced satisfactory results at high flow rate.

Findings

The observations made on the four ANFIS models in the flow identification experimentation (in ten different flow regimes) have shown convincing and satisfactory results at high-flow rate of the particles.

Originality/value

Electrodynamic sensors have shown strong sensing capability in identification of dense-particle flows within a conveyor; and also proven capability to operate effectively in harsh industrial environments due to their firm and simple structures. Moreover, it has been verified that these sensors can conveniently be applied in flow regime identification of solid particles.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Ahmad ‘Athif Mohd Faudzi, Khairuddin Osman, Mohd Fua'ad Rahmat, Koichi Suzumori, Nu'man Din Mustafa and Muhammad Asyraf Azman

Intelligent pneumatic actuator (IPA) is a new generation of actuator developed for Research and Development (R&D) purposes in the academic and industrial fields. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Intelligent pneumatic actuator (IPA) is a new generation of actuator developed for Research and Development (R&D) purposes in the academic and industrial fields. The purpose of this paper is to show the application of optical encoder and pressure sensor in IPA, to develop a real-time model similar to the existing devices, and to assess the position control performance using a proportional-integrative (PI) controller and a bang-bang controller in real-time.

Design/methodology/approach

A micro optical encoder chip is used to detect cylinder rod position by reading constructed laser stripes on a guide rod, whereas a pressure sensor is used to detect the chamber pressure reading. To control the cylinder movements by manipulating pulse-width modulation (PWM) cycles, two unit valves of two ports and two positions were used. A PI controller and a bang-bang controller are used with suitable gain value to drive the valve using PWM to achieve the target actuator position.

Findings

The results show the experimental results of the closed-loop position tracking performance of the system using a data acquisition (DAQ) card over MATLAB software.

Originality/value

This paper presents a real-time model used to replace the microcontroller-based system from previous IPA design. The paper proposes two control strategies, PI and bang-bang, to control position using encoder and pressure reading.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

M.F. Rahmat, H.A. Sabit and R. Abdul Rahim

Solid particles flowing in a pipeline is a common mode of transport in industries. This is because pipeline transportation can avoid waste through spillage and minimizes…

Abstract

Purpose

Solid particles flowing in a pipeline is a common mode of transport in industries. This is because pipeline transportation can avoid waste through spillage and minimizes the risk of handling of hazardous materials. Pharmaceutical industries, food stuff manufacturing industries, cement, and chemical industries are a few industries to exploit this transportation technique. For such industries, monitoring and controlling material flow through the pipe is an essential element to ensure efficiency and safety of the system. The purpose of this paper is to present electrical charge tomography, which is one of the most efficient, robust, cost‐effective, and non‐invasive tomographic methods of monitoring solid particles flow in a pipeline.

Design/methodology/approach

Process flow data are captured by fitting an array of 16 discrete electrodynamic sensors about the circumference of the flow pipe. The captured data are processed using two tomographic algorithms to obtain tomographic images of the flow. Then a neural network tool is used to improve image resolution and accuracy of measurements.

Findings

The results from the above technique show significant improvements in the pipe flow image resolution and measurements.

Originality/value

The paper presents electrical charge tomography, which is one of the most efficient, robust, cost‐effective, and non‐invasive tomographic methods of monitoring solid particles flow in a pipeline.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Asmah Rahmat, Steven A. Burr and Jeffrey R. Fry

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is to determine the cytotoxic activity of Mangifera pajang (bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (tarap) crude extracts against selected cancer cell lines (i.e. ovarian, liver and colon cancer) and to compare the amount of selected polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and flavones) in the kernel, peel and flesh of M. pajang; and the seed and flesh of A. odoratissimus.

Design/methodology/approach

Cytotoxicity activity of the extracts are investigated using MTT (3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay while polyphenols are determined using high performance liquid chromatography.

Findings

The results show that only the kernel and peel extracts from M. pajang display cytotoxic activity in liver and ovarian cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 34.5 to 92.0  μg/ml. The proliferation of colon cancer cell line is inhibited only by the kernel of M. pajang with IC50 value of 63.0  μg/ml. The kernel and peel from M. pajang contains a broad range of polyphenol phytochemicals which might be responsible for the cytotoxicity activity against selected cancer cell lines.

Originality/value

Previous reports have indicated that both M. pajang and A. odoratissimus contain high antioxidant properties. This study further determines the phytochemicals profiling in both fruits, which might contribute to the antioxidant activity. Besides that, the result from this study shows that the waste of the fruits (i.e. kernel and peel) contain superior phenolic phytochemicals and display better anticancer potential compared to the flesh; suggests the use of them in health‐industry application. Utilization of all parts of the fruits (i.e. flesh, seed, kernel and peel) for the development of nutraceutical and functional food application is suggested.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Mozhde Heydarianasl

Electrostatic sensors are applied to measure velocity of solid particles in many industries because controlling the velocity particles improves product quality and process…

Abstract

Purpose

Electrostatic sensors are applied to measure velocity of solid particles in many industries because controlling the velocity particles improves product quality and process efficiency. The purpose of current paper is optimization of these sensors which is required to achieve maximum spatial sensitivity and minimum statistical error.

Design/methodology/approach

Different electrode of electrostatic sensors with different length, thickness and sensor separations were experimentally applied in laboratory. Then, correlation velocity, signal bandwidth and statistical error were calculated.

Findings

High sensor separation is a crucial factor because it would lead to increase signal similarity and decrease statistical error. This paper focuses on the effect of sensor separation on optimization of electrostatic sensors.

Originality/value

From observations, the optimal value for length, thickness and sensor separations was 0.6, 0.5 and 15 cm, respectively. Consequently, statistical error has improved by about 17 per cent. These results provided a significant basis of optimization of electrostatic sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Norbert Grzesik

In the era of common digitalization and far reaching progress in the field of cybernetics, it is necessary to use the knowledge and experience in military cybernetics…

Abstract

Purpose

In the era of common digitalization and far reaching progress in the field of cybernetics, it is necessary to use the knowledge and experience in military cybernetics applications. In the field of machines, control fuzzy expert inference systems open new horizons and possibilities. Generally, the main affect of human efforts in the case of artificial intelligence is to create a machine with a set of behaviors and attitudes that would allow it to work independently, with ability to adjust to changing environmental conditions and an advisory role in the decision-making process. It should be noted that this technology used in some cases has already produced successful results. This paper aims to describe how the fuzzy expert inference membership function shapes influence analysis on selected air tasks efficiency evaluation results. Presented results prove that proper fuzzy membership functions shape selection has fundamental influence on aircraft system level of efficiency evaluation (its calculation accuracy). Using this technology in military aviation air tasks efficiency evaluation aspects is pioneer.

Design/methodology/approach

In the era of common digitalization and far reaching progress in the field of cybernetics, it is necessary to use the knowledge and experience in the domain of cybernetics in military applications. Artificial intelligence that so much influences on the imagination of scholars actually opens new horizons when it comes to control the machines. Relatively recently, it is introduced for military applications such departments of artificial intelligence as fuzzy logic, expert systems and fuzzy control theory.

Findings

In this paper, fuzzy expert inference membership function shapes influence analysis on selected air tasks efficiency evaluation results are described. Presented results prove that proper fuzzy membership functions shape selection has fundamental influence on aircraft system level of efficiency evaluation (its calculation accuracy).

Practical implications

The issue solved in the paper is based on application of theoretical results in practice. The paper can be estimated to bridge the gap between theory and practice in specific field.

Originality/value

Using this technology in military aviation air tasks efficiency evaluation aspects is pioneer.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 88 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Chiew Loon Goh, Ruzairi Abdul Rahim and Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched within the past 10 years. Decades of research on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched within the past 10 years. Decades of research on non-invasively and non-intrusively visualizing and monitoring gas-liquid multi-phase flow in process plants in making sure that the industrial system has high quality control. Process tomography is a developing measurement technology for industrial flow visualization.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched especially in the application of gas-liquid flow within the past 10 years was conducted. The sensor system operating fundamentals and assessment of each tomography technology are discussed and explained in detail.

Findings

Potential future research on gas-liquid flow in a conducting vessel using ultrasonic tomography sensor system is addressed.

Originality/value

The authors would like to undertake that the above-mentioned manuscript is original, has not been published elsewhere, accepted for publication elsewhere or under editorial review for publication elsewhere and that my Institute’s Universiti Teknologi Malaysia representative is fully aware of this submission.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Ling Li, Fazhan Tao and Zhumu Fu

The flexible mode transitions, multiple power sources and system uncertainty lead to challenges for mode transition control of four-wheel-drive hybrid powertrain…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexible mode transitions, multiple power sources and system uncertainty lead to challenges for mode transition control of four-wheel-drive hybrid powertrain. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve dynamic performance and fuel economy in mode transition process for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), overcoming the influence of system uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

First, operation modes and transitions are analyzed and then dynamic models during mode transition process are established. Second, a robust mode transition controller based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed. RBFNN is designed as an uncertainty estimator to approximate lumped model uncertainty due to modeling error. Based on this estimator, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed in clutch slipping phase to achieve clutch speed synchronization, despite disturbance of engine torque error, engine resistant torque and clutch torque. Finally, simulations are carried out on MATLAB/Cruise co-platform.

Findings

Compared with routine control and SMC, the proposed robust controller can achieve better performance in clutch slipping time, engine torque error, vehicle jerk and slipping work either in nominal system or perturbed system.

Originality/value

The mode transition control of four-wheel-drive HEVs is investigated, and a robust controller based on RBFNN estimation is proposed. Compared results show that the proposed controller can improve dynamic performance and fuel economy effectively in spite of the existence of uncertainty.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of 306