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J.V. Manca, L. De Schepper, W. De Ceuninck, M. D'Olieslager, L.M. Stals, M.F. Barker, C.R. Pickering, W.A. Craig, E. Beyne and J. Roggen
In this paper, it is shown that the so‐called in‐situ electrical measurement technique is a valuable tool for understanding failure mechanisms in thick film dielectrics…
In this paper, it is shown that the so‐called in‐situ electrical measurement technique is a valuable tool for understanding failure mechanisms in thick film dielectrics. The technique makes it possible to measure important electrical characteristics of thick film dielectric systems in the temperature range from room temperature up to 900°C. This information is essential to understand failure mechanisms and to optimise the system with respect to quality and reliability. Mainly two electrical properties have been investigated: (i) the electrical resistance of the dielectric as a function of temperature and (ii) the spontaneous electromotive force occurring at higher temperatures between two metal layers with the dielectric in between. A significant result of the work is the observation of a close correlation between the leakage current measured through the dielectric at elevated temperatures, and the ability of the dielectric to resist shorting and blistering effects during the preparation of circuits. Secondly, from in‐situ voltage measurements, it was confirmed that the mixed metallurgy system Au(bottom)‐dielectric‐Ag(top) acts at 850°C as a spontaneous battery, and the battery voltage (i.e., the spontaneous electromotive force) was measured. Depending on the type of dielectric, a battery voltage up to 200 mV between the two metal layers was observed. As a result of this spontaneous electromotive force, blistering occurs. The battery voltage was shown to be much smaller in unmixed metallurgy systems with Ag(bottom)‐dielectric‐Ag(top) or Au(bottom)‐dielectric‐Au(top). However, if an external voltage of 300 mV is applied to such a system during a temperature profile up to 850°C, blisters can also be induced. This shows unambiguously that blistering is a voltage driven effect.
C.R. Pickering, W.A. Craig, M.F. Barker, J. Cocker, P.C. Donohue and G. Vanrietvelde
Complex mixed metallurgy multilayers require a very robust dielectric to withstand shorting or blistering effects, together with high density for long‐term reliability in…
Complex mixed metallurgy multilayers require a very robust dielectric to withstand shorting or blistering effects, together with high density for long‐term reliability in humid environments. The development and performance of a new multilayer dielectric which meets these needs is presented here. A dielectric frit chemistry has been developed with a view to eliminating short circuits and blistering induced by the proximity of dissimilar metallurgies on multiple refiring. Appropriate filler technology has also been developed to optimise dielectric density, toughness and laser‐trim properties. High density has yielded excellent HBT (High Bias Temperature) and HHBT (High Humidity Bias Test) performance. Data on multilayer circuit bowing are presented which take account of the interaction of conductor frit and the dielectric on firing. Silver conductor is employed in inner layers to optimise conductivity and cost. A new 1:3 PdAg conductor for termination of components and resistors also permits heavy Al wire bonding with good aged performance. 25 µm Au and 37 µm Al wire bonding is facilitated by gold conductor on dielectric. The laser trim characteristics of a new resistor series on dielectric are described. The materials system has been tested in a complex multilayer structure which, with the use of a new silver via fill conductor, resulted in defect‐free circuits with zero yield loss.
Matthew Conner and Leah Plocharczyk
Mainstream pornography is popular, freely accessible, and infused with themes of male dominance, aggression, and female subservience. Through depicting sex in these ways…
Mainstream pornography is popular, freely accessible, and infused with themes of male dominance, aggression, and female subservience. Through depicting sex in these ways, mainstream pornography has the potential to influence the further development of harmful sexual scripts that condone or endorse violence against women and girls. These concerns warrant the adoption of a harms-based perspective in critical examinations of pornography's influence on sexual experiences. This chapter reports on findings from interviews with 24 heterosexual emerging adults living in Aotearoa/New Zealand about how pornography has impacted their lives. Despite a shared awareness among participants of mainstream pornography's misogynistic tendencies, and the potential for harm from those displays, men's and women's experiences were profoundly gendered. Men's reported experiences were often associated with concerns about their own sexual behaviors, performances, and/or abilities. Conversely, women's experiences were often shaped by how pornography had affected the way that men related to them sexually. Their experiences included instances of sexual coercion and assault which were not reported by the men. These findings signal the need for a gendered lens, situated within a broader harms-based perspective, in examinations of pornography's influence.
The growth in digital telecom systems around the world has led to an increase indemand for surge protection components. These components often use low ohm resistor…
The growth in digital telecom systems around the world has led to an increase in demand for surge protection components. These components often use low ohm resistor compositions in a serpentine configuration. The demands placed upon these materials during pulsing are high. Not only are the materials expected to withstand more severe pulses, they are also expected to have minimal adverse effect on the environment. To meet these increased demands, a new system of surge resistor materials has been developed. The design, manufacture and testing of these materials ensures optimum performance in high voltage surge applications. This paper describes the performance of this new surge resistor system and discusses how the performance of the resistors relates to the paste constituents, encapsulant materials and the laser trimming process.
This chapter considers the influence of horror on the production of commercial gay pornography. I see this influence reflected especially in the production and popularity…
This chapter considers the influence of horror on the production of commercial gay pornography. I see this influence reflected especially in the production and popularity of gay pornographic films inspired by horror franchises from the slasher and ‘torture porn’ cycles that have been remade in recent decades. Nine texts are selected for analysis – from the slasher genre: Bryan Kenny’s 2010 A Nightmare on Twink Street (inspired by the A Nightmare on Elm Street series), Andy Kay’s 2012 Black XXXmas (inspired by Black Christmas), Frank Fuder and Angel Skye’s 2009 Halloweiner: Friday the Fuckteenth and Chi Chi LaRue’s 2016 Scared Stiff (both inspired by the Friday the 13th series), Bromo’s 2017 Cream for Me (Scream series); and from the torture porn genre: Jett Blakk’s 2006 Bonesaw, John Bruno’s 2006 Rammer and Bryan Kenny’s 2010 Raw I and 2011 (with Andy Kay) Raw II (inspired by the Saw franchise). The specificity of the horror genre is addressed, as is the importance of gender. But particular focus is directed toward the structural aspects of gay porn parodies and the degree to which horror parodies in particular have the potential to blend pornographic homosex with graphic violence, perhaps most extreme in the slasher and torture porn horror variants. Other potentialities are also explored, such as for the easing of narrative/sex porn tensions.
Dennis M. McInerney and Ronnel B. King
The international student population is steadily increasing. However, we know little about what happens to their academic motivation as they transit from their home…
The international student population is steadily increasing. However, we know little about what happens to their academic motivation as they transit from their home culture into a new host culture. This gap in knowledge needs to be addressed given that motivation is a key driver of academic success. The aim of this chapter is to examine factors that can influence international students' academic motivation during and after transition. Three broad theoretical frameworks drawn from the acculturation literature – culture learning theory, stress and coping theory, and social identification theory – are proffered to help understand the impact of the transition on student motivation. It seems inevitable that student motivation will generally decline during the early phases of the transition. This may be due to the differences in sociocultural norms between the home and host culture, the variety of stressors that international students face, and the potential impact of stereotyping and discrimination. However, the extent and duration of this decline could be moderated by a variety of personal (e.g., language proficiency, personality, acculturation strategies, reasons for going abroad) and contextual (e.g., cultural distance, social support) factors. Examples of intervention programs that can buffer against motivational decline are given. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
The concept of the ‘specificity’ of the terms used in an information retrieval system has come up several times in the last few years. In fact, there are two different…
The concept of the ‘specificity’ of the terms used in an information retrieval system has come up several times in the last few years. In fact, there are two different concepts which have been described by this term. It is perhaps helpful to distinguish between them.
Busi Rambabu and Y. Srinivasa Rao
The purpose of this paper is to study high-voltage interactions in polymer thick-film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-graphite thick-film resistors, and their…
The purpose of this paper is to study high-voltage interactions in polymer thick-film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-graphite thick-film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors.
The authors applied high voltages in the form of pulses and impulses of various pulse durations and with different amplitudes to polymer thick-film resistors and observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages.
The paper finds that high voltages can be used for trimming of polymer thick-film resistors in both directions, i.e. upwards and downwards.
The research implication of this paper is that polymer thick-film resistors can be trimmed downwards or upwards practically using this method.
The practical implications of this paper is that one can trim the polymer thick-film resistors, namely, PVC–graphite thick-film resistors, in both directions, i.e. upwards and downwards, by using this method.
The value of the paper is in showing that high voltages can be used to trim downwards and also upwards in the case of polymer thick-film resistors. This type of trimming is called universal trimming, developed first time for polymer thick-film resistors.