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Zulema Valdez

Segmented assimilation theory predicts that contemporary non-white groups follow three patterns of assimilation: mainstream, downward, or delayed. Yet, the homogenous…

Abstract

Purpose

Segmented assimilation theory predicts that contemporary non-white groups follow three patterns of assimilation: mainstream, downward, or delayed. Yet, the homogenous treatment and primacy of ethnicity resigns all group members to a similar fate. Whereas few studies of ethnic incorporation consider both the classed and gendered nature of the labor market, this study investigates the extent to which intersectional group differences within the highly stratified American economy shape segmented assimilation trajectories.

Methodology/approach

This study introduces an intersectional approach to segmented assimilation theory. Using the 2000 census, this study examines how within group differences in skill and gender condition the hourly earnings, joblessness and self-employment participation outcomes of five ethnic minority groups from the first to the second generation, compared against US-born, non-Hispanic whites.

Findings

Findings generally support the mainstream assimilation hypothesis for all groups; a downward assimilation trajectory among Chinese men only; and a delayed assimilation trajectory for low-skilled Filipinas and high-skilled Cuban men and women. This study reveals that intra-group differences in skill and gender shape divergent segmented assimilation trajectories among members of the same ethnic group.

Originality/value

This study challenges the emphasis on and primacy of ethnicity in predicting segmented assimilation in favor of an intersectional approach that considers how multiple, interdependent, and intersecting dimensions of identity and not only ethnicity shape the process of economic incorporation among ethnic groups.

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Article

Mostafa Safdari Shadloo

Convection is one of the main heat transfer mechanisms in both high to low temperature media. The accurate convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) value is required for…

Abstract

Purpose

Convection is one of the main heat transfer mechanisms in both high to low temperature media. The accurate convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) value is required for exact prediction of heat transfer. As convection HTC depends on many variables including fluid properties, flow hydrodynamics, surface geometry and operating and boundary conditions, among others, its accurate estimation is often too hard. Homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in a base fluid (nanofluids) that found high popularities during the past two decades has also increased the level of this complexity. Therefore, this study aims to show the application of least-square support vector machines (LS-SVM) for prediction of convection heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids through circular pipes as an accurate alternative way and draw a clear path for future researches in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed LS-SVM model is developed using a relatively huge databank, including 253 experimental data sets. The predictive performance of this intelligent approach is validated using both experimental data and empirical correlations in the literature.

Findings

The results show that the LS-SVM paradigm with a radial basis kernel outperforms all other considered approaches. It presents an absolute average relative deviation of 2.47% and the regression coefficient (R2) of 0.99935 for the estimation of the experimental databank. The proposed smart paradigm expedites the procedure of estimation of convection HTC of nanofluid flow inside circular pipes.

Originality/value

Therefore, the focus of the current study is concentrated on the estimation of convection HTC of nanofluid flow through circular pipes using the LS-SVM. Indeed, this estimation is done using operating conditions and some simply measured characteristics of nanoparticle, base fluid and nanofluid.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article

Hilary Omatule Onubi, Nor’Aini Yusof and Ahmad Sanusi Hassan

This study aims to examine the effects of green construction site practices on the economic performance of projects executed by “class A” contractors in Nigeria. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of green construction site practices on the economic performance of projects executed by “class A” contractors in Nigeria. The effects of stormwater management, materials management waste management and energy management on economic performance were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected through a survey of class A contractors in Nigeria, and 168 usable responses were received. The partial least-squares structural equation modelling technique was used to analyse the collected data.

Findings

It was observed that all the green construction practices studied had significant effects on the economic performance of construction projects with the greatest effect from energy management.

Practical implications

The results imply that green construction practices generally lead to economic performance. The study has both theoretical and practical implications, as it helps both policymakers and contractors better understand the relationships between these variables of green construction practices and economic performance to better plan for their projects and for the government to formulate appropriate policies.

Originality/value

The study’s findings makes significant contributions to the ongoing discussion on the relationship between green construction practices and economic performance. The relationship established between stormwater management, waste management, materials management, energy management and economic performance in this study is different when compared with those in other similar studies.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

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Article

Nurizaty Zuhan, Mariyana Aida Ab Kadir, Muhammad Najmi Mohamad Ali Mastor, Shek Poi Ngian and Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam

Concrete-filled steel hollow (CFHS) column is an innovation to improve the performance of concrete or steel column. It is believed to have high compressive strength, good…

Abstract

Purpose

Concrete-filled steel hollow (CFHS) column is an innovation to improve the performance of concrete or steel column. It is believed to have high compressive strength, good plasticity and is excellent for seismic and fire performance as compared to hollow steel column without a filler.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to study the performance of CFHS having different concrete in-fill and shape of steel tube.

Findings

In this paper, an extensive review of experiment performed on CFHS columns at elevated temperature is presented in different types of concrete as filling material. There are three different types of concrete filling used by the researchers, such as normal concrete (NC), reinforced concrete and pozzolanic-fly ash concrete (FC). A number of studies have conducted experimental investigation on the performance of NC casted using recycled aggregate at elevated temperature. The research gap and the recommendations are also proposed. This review will provide basic information on an innovation on steel column by application of in-filled materials.

Research limitations/implications

Design guideline is not considered in this paper.

Practical implications

Fire resistance is an important issue in the structural fire design. This can be a guideline to define the performance of the CFHS with different type of concrete filler at various exposures.

Social implications

Utilization of waste fly ash reduces usage of conventional cement (ordinary Portland cement) in concrete production and enhances its performance at elevated temperature. The new innovation in CFHS columns with FC can reduce the cost of concrete production and at the same time mitigate the environmental issue caused by waste material by minimizing the disposal area.

Originality/value

Review on the different types of concrete filler in the CFHS column. The research gap and the recommendations are also proposed.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article

Mehdi Bidabadi, Sadegh Sadeghi, Pedram Panahifar, Davood Toghraie and Alireza Rahbari

This study aims to present a basic mathematical model for investigating the structure of counter-flow non-premixed laminar flames propagating through uniformly-distributed…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a basic mathematical model for investigating the structure of counter-flow non-premixed laminar flames propagating through uniformly-distributed organic fuel particles considering preheat, drying, vaporization, reaction and oxidizer zones.

Design/methodology/approach

Lycopodium particles and air are taken as biofuel and oxidizer, respectively. Dimensionalized and non-dimensionalized forms of mass and energy conservation equations are derived for each zone taking into account proper boundary and jump conditions. Subsequently, to solve the governing equations, an asymptotic method is used. For validation purpose, results achieved from the present analysis are compared with reliable data reported in the literature under certain conditions.

Findings

With regard to the comparisons, although different complex non-homogeneous differential equations are solved in this paper, acceptable agreements are observed. Finally, the impacts of significant parameters including fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers, equivalence ratio, mass particle concentration, fuel and oxidizer mass fractions and lycopodium initial temperature on the flame temperature, flame front position and flow strain rate are elaborately explained.

Originality/value

An asymptotic method for mathematical modeling of counter-flow non-premixed multi-zone laminar flames propagating through lycopodium particles.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article

Christine Danner, Katie Freeman, Samantha Friedrichsen and Dana Brandenburg

The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the health behaviors of Karen youth with that of the other subpopulation seen at a Minnesota clinic.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the health behaviors of Karen youth with that of the other subpopulation seen at a Minnesota clinic.

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic information and data on health status, recommended health behaviors and goal-setting patterns were collected via a review of the medical records of patients seen at a family medicine residency clinic in St Paul, Minnesota during a one-year period (July 2015–June 2016). Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Data on Karen patients were compared with data on other populations.

Findings

The study included 765 youths aged 3–17 years. The Karen youth in the study engaged in recommended health behaviors more frequently than their peers on almost every measure. There were statistically significant differences in the amount of sleep, intake of fruits and vegetables, screen time, number of active days per week and consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks between the Karen and their peers overall. Karen youth also reported consuming fewer sweets and fried or processed food than their peers, and they had lower BMI percentiles than other youth.

Research limitations/implications

The study relied on participant self-report, which is subject to potential inaccuracies in recall and reporting.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study detailing health behaviors of Karen youth in the USA. The findings suggest a window of opportunity to support and empower Karen families to maintain healthy habits in order to prevent the development of chronic disease in this community.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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Article

Norliza Ismail, Azman Jalar, Maria Abu Bakar, Nur Shafiqa Safee, Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff and Ariffin Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and micromechanical properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint under blast wave condition. This work is an extension from the previous study of microstructural evolution and hardness properties of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder under blast wave condition.

Design/methodology/approach

SAC/CNT solder pastes were manufactured by mixing of SAC solder powder, fluxes and CNT with 0.02 and 0.04 by weight percentage (Wt.%) separately. This solder paste then printed on the printed circuit board (PCB) with the copper surface finish. Printed samples underwent reflow soldering to form the solder joint. Soldered samples then exposed to the open field air blast test with different weight charges of explosives. Microstructure, interfacial IMC layer and micromechanical behavior of SAC/CNT solder joints after blast test were observed and analyzed via optical microscope, field emission scanning microscope and nanoindentation.

Findings

Exposure to the blast wave induced the microstructure instability of SAC305/Cu and SAC/CNT/Cu solder joint. Interfacial IMC layer thickness and hardness properties increases with increase in explosive weight. The existence of CNT in the SAC305 solder system is increasing the resistance of solder joint to the blast wave.

Originality/value

Response of micromechanical properties of SAC305/CNT/Cu solder joint has been identified and provided a fundamental understanding of reliability solder joint, especially in extreme conditions such as for military applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article

Peter Lukacs, Alena Pietrikova, Beata Ballokova, Dagmar Jakubeczyova and Ondrej Kovac

This paper aims to find the optimal deposition conditions for achieving the homogenous structure of the silver layers onto three types of polymeric substrates as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to find the optimal deposition conditions for achieving the homogenous structure of the silver layers onto three types of polymeric substrates as well as on the rigid substrates. For this reason, the detailed investigation of the silver-based layers deposited at different technological conditions by microscopic methods is presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The special test pattern has been designed and deposited at different substrate temperatures by using two types of generally available silver-based nano-inks. Cross-sections and 3D profiles of the deposited silver layers have been profoundly analysed by using the optical profiler Sensofar S Neox on the generally used polymeric (PI, PET and PEN) and rigid substrates (951 and 9K7 LTCC, glass and alumina).

Findings

The results prove the strong correlation between the substrate temperature during the deposition process and the final shape of the created structure which has the a direct impact on the layers’ homogeneity. The results also prove the theory of the coffee ring effect creation in the inkjet printing technology.

Originality/value

The main benefit of this paper lies in the possibility of the homogeneity achievement of the deposited silver-based layers on the several polymeric and rigid substrates by managing the temperature during the deposition. The paper also offers the comparative study of nano-inks’ behaviour on several polymeric and rigid substrates.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article

Beibei Xiong, Yongli Li, Ernesto D.R. Santibanez Gonzalez and Malin Song

The purpose of this paper is to measure Chinese industries’ eco-efficiency during 2006-2013. The Chinese industry attained rapid achievement in recent decades, but…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure Chinese industries’ eco-efficiency during 2006-2013. The Chinese industry attained rapid achievement in recent decades, but meanwhile, overconsumption of energy and environmental pollution have become serious problems. To solve these problems, many research studies used the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the Chinese industry’s eco-efficiency. However, because the target set by these works is usually the furthest one for a province to be efficient, it may hardly be accepted by any province.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds a new “closest target method” based on an additive DEA model considering the undesirable outputs. This method is a mixed-integer programming problem which can measure the ecological efficiency of provinces and more importantly guide the province to perform efficiently with minimum effort.

Findings

The results show that the eco-efficiency of Chinese provinces increased at the average level, but the deviations remained at a larger value. Compared to the “furthest” target methods, the targets by the approach proposed by this study are more acceptable for a province to improve its performance on both economy and environment counts.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to introduce the closest targets concept to measure the eco-efficiency and set the target for each provincial industry in China.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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