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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

L.R. Lichtenberg, M. Sleiman and M.J. Harry

During the past few years, statistical process control and experiment design concepts have taken a prominent place within the industry. The use of such tools within the Motorola…

Abstract

During the past few years, statistical process control and experiment design concepts have taken a prominent place within the industry. The use of such tools within the Motorola, GEG manufacturing environment, has grown to the point where reflow and wave solder process development and optimisation has significantly benefited. The ability to evaluate statistically and model various known and unknown phenomena has provided GEG's manufacturing technology with a series of very powerful tools to aid in process control and development. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the various approaches used by GEG to implement the previously mentioned statistical tools, with respect to the development of infra‐red (I‐R) reflow solder processes and enhancement of certain quality characteristics associated with wave soldered printed wiring boards (PWBs). Beyond specific GEG applications, the paper discusses the role of statistically designed experiments and process control methods as a vehicle for providing answers to complex manufacturing problems. In addition, a discussion of the mathematical and graphical methods underlying the interpretation of quantitative data is presented. Perhaps the most important benefit derived from the use of statistics to solve manufacturing and quality problems is related to decision making. When experiments are conducted to isolate unwanted sources of process and product variation, decisions must be made to determine whether or not certain experimental effects are important. Through the application of statistics, the researcher can ascertain the mathematical probability associated with the random chance occurrence of various experimental effects. With this knowledge, the researcher can make decisions with known degrees of risk and confidence. Without such knowledge, an organisation might possibly expend valuable resources and derive no direct benefit. Ultimately, the principal reason for applying statistical methods and procedures is to increase quality and yield, while simultaneously reducing costs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2024

Subhi Jleilaty, Anas Ammounah, Ghiath Abdulmalek, Lydie Nouveliere, Hang Su and Samer Alfayad

This paper aims to develop an adaptable control architecture for electrohydraulic humanoid robots (HYDROïD) that emulate the functionality of the human nervous system. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an adaptable control architecture for electrohydraulic humanoid robots (HYDROïD) that emulate the functionality of the human nervous system. The developed control architecture overcomes the limitations of classical centralized and decentralized systems by distributing intelligence across controllers.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed solution is a distributed real-time control architecture with robot operating system (ROS). The joint controllers have the intelligence to make decisions, dominate their actuators and publish their state. The real-time capabilities are ensured in the master controller by using a Preempt-RT kernel beside open robot control software middleware to operate the real-time tasks and in the customized joint controllers by free real-time operating systems firmware. Systems can be either centralized, where all components are connected to a central unit or decentralized, where distributed units act as interfaces between the I/Os and the master controller when the master controller is without the ability to make decisions.

Findings

The proposed architecture establishes a versatile and adaptive control framework. It features a centralized hardware topology with a master PC and distributed joint controllers, while the software architecture adapts based on the task. It operates in a distributed manner for precise, force-independent motions and in a decentralized manner for tasks requiring compliance and force control. This design enables the examination of the sensorimotor loop at both low-level joint controllers and the high-level master controller.

Originality/value

It developed a control architecture emulating the functionality of the human nervous system. The experimental validations were performed on the HYDROïD. The results demonstrated 50% advancements in the update rate compared to other humanoids and 30% in the latency of the master processor and the control tasks.

Details

Robotic Intelligence and Automation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-6969

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2022

Hoai Than Nguyen and Elaine Quintana Borazon

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted various systems that drove people to adapt to certain technologies, such as electronic government services, for daily survival and to meet…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted various systems that drove people to adapt to certain technologies, such as electronic government services, for daily survival and to meet social distancing requirements. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antecedents of e-government use based on prospect theory and modified unified theory of acceptance use of technology (UTAUT) during a pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Convenience sampling of 368 respondents from Vietnam was conducted, and questionnaires were distributed personally or by email. The data were analyzed following a two-stage structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS v23 and AMOS v23. The validity and reliability of the instrument were tested and ensured.

Findings

Results show that perceived severity drives government support and social influence while perceived security drives government support, social influence and trust. Social influence enhances government support and trust, which both drives e-government use. Mediation analysis shows that government support mediates perceived the influence of perceived severity on e-government use.

Practical implications

The integration of prospect theory and UTAUT brings into light what will drive the adoption of e-government in the context of Vietnam. Supporting mechanisms, such as security measures, trust-building, government support and social influence, will drive citizens to adapt to technologies provided by the government but would also rely on the perceived risks and benefits.

Originality/value

This study integrates prospect theory and a modified version of UTAUT to explain the drivers of e-government use. The results reveal that under uncertainties, government support is critical in driving the use of e-government for people to manage the daily lives for survival.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Abbas J. Ali

551

Abstract

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Abd Hakim Abd Razak

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal paradigm of multiple Sharia' board directorship practice from the Sharia' law concept of Maslahah Al-Mursalah (public interest).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal paradigm of multiple Sharia' board directorship practice from the Sharia' law concept of Maslahah Al-Mursalah (public interest).

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a doctrinal research method that relies on the commonly referred sources of Quran and Sunnah, with a specific focus on Maslahah Al-Mursalah and, where applicable, commentaries by contemporary scholars, academics and practitioners as well as translations of classical book of Fiqh. This study scrutinises the polarity of views concerning the distinct Masyaqqah (necessity) surrounding the practice in discussion: the Masyaqqah that encourages and one that discourages the application of the practice.

Findings

This study is keen to suggest the industry to adopt a cautious approach and consider exploring a corporate governance framework that appraises the theoretical and practical Sharia' issues concerning its application in cognisance of its adversarial influence towards the sustainability of Islamic banking industry.

Originality/value

Since Murat Unal’s study of multiple Sharia' board directorships in 2009 and 2011, empirical works that scrutinise the practice from the Sharia' law perspective have remained limited or almost non-existent. It is aspired that this study may assist fellow readers and future researchers alike in evaluating and appreciating the divergent views surrounding the application of this practice in Islamic banking.

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Wonhyung Lee

Homelessness in the public place presents a complex issue to downtown redevelopment and management efforts. Although business communities are commonly perceived to take hostile…

Abstract

Purpose

Homelessness in the public place presents a complex issue to downtown redevelopment and management efforts. Although business communities are commonly perceived to take hostile, often punitive, approaches to deal with homelessness, such perception does not reflect recent alternative approaches. This paper aims to examine versatile approaches that district management organizations take to address homelessness, focusing on the role of business improvement districts (BIDs) in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a mixed method of data collection and analysis that combines a nationwide survey of BIDs and in-depth interviews with people who work at or in collaboration with BIDs in Washington, DC.

Findings

The findings suggest that BIDs, as one of the major organizations that serve the interests of property and business owners in commercial areas, have the potential to balance their traditional roles as a district manager with their alternative roles as advocates, mediators and service providers to address homelessness.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the small number of BIDs reflected in the survey and interviews, the research results may lack generalizability. Further research on the outcomes of the BID-homeless intervention efforts will benefit the future practice.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that BIDs can implement a more cooperative approach to addressing homelessness in partnership with the public and human service sectors.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the versatile roles of BIDs in dealing with homelessness.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Umar A. Oseni

This study aims to examine the phenomenon of Fatwā shopping, its effect on consumer trust in Islamic finance products and the need for effective consumer protection regulations in…

1016

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the phenomenon of Fatwā shopping, its effect on consumer trust in Islamic finance products and the need for effective consumer protection regulations in the Islamic finance industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this study is qualitative research which draws significantly from relevant regulations on financial consumer protection through analytical method to identify common themes on Fatwā shopping and consumer trust in the relevant literature.

Findings

This study finds that the increasing practice of Fatwā shopping through clandestine searches by some Islamic banks to get their new products endorsed by leading Sharī‘ah scholars requires proper legal regulation to avoid a total erosion of trust in the entire Islamic finance industry.

Research limitations/implication

Though Fatwā shopping is practiced in the Islamic finance industry, it is always difficult to get some desperate Islamic bankers to agree to this; hence, this study does not portend to examine the evidence on Fatwā shopping, but it seeks to bring to the fore the effect of Fatwā shopping on consumer trust in Islamic financial services, and the need for effective consumer protection regulations.

Practical implications

This study is expected to provide an invaluable guide and policy framework for emerging and promising jurisdictions on the need to regulate Fatwā shopping through an effective legal framework based on some best practices identified in the study.

Originality/value

Though there have been a number of studies relating to Fatwā shopping, focusing on the need for effective consumer protection regulations in the Islamic finance industry will enrich the existing literature and have significant implications for the future of the industry.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2023

Natalie Raben and Nikos Ntounis

This study aims to explore UK Business Improvement Districts' (BIDs) responses and practices to the COVID crisis and evaluates how these influenced their organisational identity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore UK Business Improvement Districts' (BIDs) responses and practices to the COVID crisis and evaluates how these influenced their organisational identity. The paper aims to highlight the possible shift in BIDs' operations that can lead to their positioning as integral facilitators of place management initiatives in their local areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors stress the confused nature of BID identity and highlight how BID activities and business plans correspond to subsequent crises through the lens of crisis management and disaster management frameworks. A mixed-methods, exploratory, sequential approach was taken, incorporating interviews and survey responses from UK BID managers in two distinct phases between October and December 2020.

Findings

The findings of the study suggest a greater emphasis on communication strategies and the formation of partnerships during the lockdown periods, along with a renewed understanding of a BID's role towards place leadership, resilience and public safety.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this work show a shift in BID business practices, programmes and services and highlight the need to establish a set of industry standards and best practices with enhanced place leadership responsibilities.

Originality/value

The research provides a detailed snapshot of the UK BID industry during the COVID crisis and shows the possibility for BIDs to reframe their identity as locally bound, place-based organisations that have a more direct role in place management.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the error estimates and adaptive finite element methods from the theoretical as well as the application point of view. The bibliography at the…

1675

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the error estimates and adaptive finite element methods from the theoretical as well as the application point of view. The bibliography at the end contains 2,177 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the subjects that were published in 1990‐2000.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Thomas Wagenknecht, René Filpe and Christof Weinhardt

Employees demand high responsibility and empowerment, while keeping their work communal and flexible. Initiatives that foster organizational participation (OP) can contribute to…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees demand high responsibility and empowerment, while keeping their work communal and flexible. Initiatives that foster organizational participation (OP) can contribute to the fulfillment of such work conditions. Research in sociology and psychology demonstrated positive effects on job satisfaction as well as on productivity. However, adoption of social software is widely spread in firms, research on the determinants of computer-supported OP is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to describe the elements to consider when designing OP processes that aim to be beneficial for both the employer as well as the employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted 20 guided expert interviews to propose a nascent design theory, following a socio-technical approach that promotes democratic and humanistic principles.

Findings

Building on the expert interview, the process model includes a topic horizon and a collaboration phase, which creates proposals that have to be decided in order to produce results. The authors show how employee competence and leadership commitment are as important as the workload and support as well as an option for anonymous communication. The authors propose a set of features and explain principles of implementation.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the authors’ best efforts to diversify the authors’ set of experts, the findings have a limited generalizability as the authors only interviewed a few selected German experts that were either members of the board, HR or IT managers, often concerned with organizing rather than only participating in computer-supported organizational participation (CSOP) processes. Besides testing the model in practise, future research should also consider surveying a broader (and more international) set of employers and employees.

Practical implications

The authors propose a step-by-step procedure to introduce CSOP. Despite identifying many pitfalls, the research demonstrates that CSOP promises a wide variety of benefits to both employers as well as the employees of an organization, including increased satisfaction as well as productivity.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to propose a nascent design theory for CSOP. The authors derive a number of requirements to consider when implementing an information management system that seeks to improve both the efficiency and equality of employers and employees and lead to a win-win situation for both. The authors describe valid constructs for firms with spatially and timely dispersed teams and more than 50 employees. The research is based on 20 expert interviews, conducted with senior managers of medium and large German enterprises.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

1 – 10 of 36