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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Jiang Zhao, Ksenia Gerasimova, Yala Peng and Jiping Sheng

The purpose of this paper is to discuss characteristics of organic food value chain governance and policy tools that can increase the supply of good quality of agri-products.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss characteristics of organic food value chain governance and policy tools that can increase the supply of good quality of agri-products.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses a national organic food supply system in China, identifying the link between an organization form with a social confidence crisis and information asymmetry as the main challenges. It develops an analytical model of the market structure of organic certification based on the contract theory, which considers the certification incentive driven by both farmers and processors. Two cases of raw milk producers and processors provide empirical data.

Findings

The argument which is brought forward is that product information asymmetry together with strict requirement for ensuring organic food integrity brings the organic milk value chain into a highly integrated organization pattern. A tight value chain is effective in the governance of organic food supply chain under third party certification (TPC), while a loose value chain discourages producing organic products because of transaction costs. TPC is found to be a positively correlation with a tight value chain, but it brings high organizational cost and it raises cost for consumers.

Originality/value

This is the first paper discussing the governance of organic food value chain in Chinese milk industry.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Muhammad Ridwan Andi Purnomo, Adhe Rizky Anugerah, Salvia Fatma Aulia and Abdullah ‘Azzam

This study aims to propose an optimal procurement model of the collaborative supply chain in the furniture industry. The final output is the total cost minimisation to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose an optimal procurement model of the collaborative supply chain in the furniture industry. The final output is the total cost minimisation to produce a furniture product that covers material cost, processing cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Therefore, if companies can give the best value to customers at a low cost, then competitive advantages can be achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

A genetic algorithm (GA) as a metaheuristic approach was used to solve problems in this research. The optimisation was initiated by developing a mathematical model to formulate the objective function.

Findings

Based on the case study, the proposed GA model was able to reduce the total cost of production. The cost was reduced by 73.09% compared to the existing system. Besides, the production time of the proposed model is within the capacity of both companies; hence, no penalty cost is imposed.

Practical implications

The proposed GA model has been implemented and tested to minimise production costs in the Indonesian furniture industry.

Originality/value

To the best of author knowledge, there is no research has proposed an optimisation model that incorporates production cost, transportation cost and production time capacity together in the collaborative supply chain. This research is the first to collaborate these factors using GA in the furniture industry.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Nicola Dellepiane

The operational component of a company’s short‐term plan (amounts of products to be delivered and sold to various markets at prices that vary according to markets, sales…

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1163

Abstract

The operational component of a company’s short‐term plan (amounts of products to be delivered and sold to various markets at prices that vary according to markets, sales channels, types of customers and quantities sold, levels of utilization of production capacity, assignment of resources to the manufacturing of different products, amounts of raw materials purchased from different sources, stocks of raw materials and finished products) gives rise to a series of cash inflows and outflows which are not synchronized. The financial component of a company’s short‐term plan has to indicate how to compensate the imbalances, in time, generated by the operational plan, between availabilities and requirements of cash, and indicate the sources of financing to be used and how to temporarily invest cash surpluses. The approach, too often followed in companies, that defines the financial component of a company’s short‐term plan as a consequence of the operational component of the plan, ignores the potential interactions between them and the possibility of defining simultaneously a more economic interfunctionally integrated plan. A model is presented for the decisions in the operational component and a model for the decisions in the financial component. If these models are used separately, they can be integrated resorting to an iterative approach that mutually adapts their separate solutions in order to define the company plan. However, the best approach is to build a model that integrates the two separate models into one structured in a way that can define the optimal integrated short‐term operational and financial plan. The lack of integration between the operational and the financial components of the short‐term company plan is a common weak point in the existing literature and practice.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Jiawu Dai and Xiuqing Wang

Complaints about lower agricultural farm-gate price and higher consumer price have emerged in China in recent years. The large gap between dairy farm-gate price and…

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564

Abstract

Purpose

Complaints about lower agricultural farm-gate price and higher consumer price have emerged in China in recent years. The large gap between dairy farm-gate price and consumer price gives rise to worries that China's dairy industry is characterized by strong degree of oligopoly. The purpose of this paper is to take the dairy processing industry as an epitome of China's food industry, and use a new approach to investigate whether it is oligopolistic and/or oligopsonistic.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a new proposed Primal-Dual Solow Residual model, the authors first test the hypothesis that there are significant oligopoly and oligopsony powers in China's dairy sector, and the latter is stronger. The authors then turn to measure these two kinds of market power using regressions of the model.

Findings

The estimation results show that firms in the sector have both strong oligopoly and oligopsony power, but the latter is stronger than the former. Meanwhile, with the continuous reinforcement of competition in China's dairy sector, market power in both the upstream and downstream has decreased slightly.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to simultaneously test oligopoly and oligopsony power in China's dairy sector. The empirical results explicitly imply that more attention should be paid to the raw milk purchase market.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

G. Sreeram, S. Pradeep, K. Sreenivasa Rao, B. Deevana Raju and Parveen Nikhat

The paper aims to precise and fast categorization on to transaction evolves into indispensible. The effective capacity difficulty of all the IDS simulates today at below…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to precise and fast categorization on to transaction evolves into indispensible. The effective capacity difficulty of all the IDS simulates today at below discovery amount of fewer regular barrage associations and therefore the next warning rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The reticulum perception is that the methods which examine and determine the scheme of contact on unearths toward number of dangerous and perchance fateful interchanges occurring toward the system. Within character of guaran-teeing the slumberous, opening and uprightness count of to socialize for professional. The precise and fast categorization on to transaction evolves into indispensible. The effective capacity difficulty of all the intrusion detection simulation (IDS) simulates today at below discovery amount of fewer regular barrage associations and therefore the next warning rate. The container with systems of connections are reproduction everything beacon subject to the series of actions to achieve results accepts exists a contemporary well-known method. At the indicated motivation a hybrid methodology supported pairing distinct ripple transformation and human intelligence artificial neural network (ANN) for IDS is projected. The lack of balance of the situation traversing the space beyond information range was eliminated through synthetic minority oversampling technique-based oversampling have low regular object and irregular below examine of the dominant object. We are binding with three layer ANN is being used for classification, and thus the experimental results on knowledge discovery databases are being used for the facts in occurrence of accuracy rate and disclosure estimation toward identical period. True and false made up accepted.

Findings

At the indicated motivation a hybrid methodology supported pairing distinct ripple transformation and human intelligence ANN for IDS is projected. The lack of balance of the situation traversing the space beyond information range was eliminated through synthetic minority oversampling technique-based oversampling have low regular object and irregular below examine of the dominant object.

Originality/value

Chain interruption discovery is the series of actions for the results knowing the familiarity opening and honor number associate order, the scientific categorization undertaking become necessary. The capacity issues of invasion discovery is the order to determine and examine. The arrangement of simulations at the occasion under discovery estimation for low regular aggression associations and above made up feeling sudden panic amount.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Qishan Zhang, Haiyan Wang and Hong Liu

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to realize a distribution network optimization in supply chain using grey systems theory for uncertain information.

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1093

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to realize a distribution network optimization in supply chain using grey systems theory for uncertain information.

Design/methodology/approach

There is much uncertain information in the distribution network optimization of supply chain, including fuzzy information, stochastic information and grey information, etc. Fuzzy information and stochastic information have been studied in supply chain, however grey information of the supply chain has not been covered. In the distribution problem of supply chain, grey demands are taken into account. Then, a mathematics model with grey demands has been constructed, and it can be transformed into a grey chance‐constrained programming model, grey simulation and a proposed hybrid particle swarm optimization are combined to resolve it. An example is also computed in the last part of the paper.

Findings

The results are convincing: not only that grey system theory can be used to deal with grey uncertain information about distribution of supply chain, but grey chance‐constrained programming, grey simulation and particle swarm optimization can be combined to resolve the grey model.

Practical implications

The method exposed in the paper can be used to deal with distribution problems with grey information in the supply chain, and network optimization results with a grey uncertain factor could be helpful for supply chain efficiency and practicability.

Originality/value

The paper succeeds in realising both a constructed model of the distribution of supply chain with grey demands and a solution algorithm of the grey mathematics model by using one of the newest developed theories: grey systems theory.

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

César Rodríguez‐Gutiérrez

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of the proportion of temporary workers on the profit‐to‐sales ratio (or price‐cost margin) of Spanish manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of the proportion of temporary workers on the profit‐to‐sales ratio (or price‐cost margin) of Spanish manufacturing firms in the 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

The relation between the proportion of temporary workers and the profit‐to‐sales ratio is estimated using the information provided by the “Encuesta Sobre Estrategias Empresariales” (Entrepreneurship Strategy Survey), a panel data set for the Spanish manufacturing sector carried out over the period 1990‐1999. The model is estimated in logarithmic first differences in order to remove fixed effects. To correct endogeneity problems, the instrumental variables method has been used.

Findings

The outcomes show that the rise in the proportion of temporary workers reduces the price‐cost margin of Spanish firms. It also leads to a fall in labour productivity and in the hourly average wage, and to an increase in the total cost of production.

Research limitations/implications

The dataset refers only to manufacturing industry. It would be interesting to extend the analysis, if possible, to the service sector of Spanish economy.

Practical implications

The outcomes show that those policies oriented to reduce the high proportion of temporary workers (which has been over 30 per cent since 1990) by means of stimulating permanent labour contracts are expected to be positive for Spanish firms.

Originality/value

This article is the first empirical work aimed at assessing the impact of the proportion of temporary workers on the profit‐to‐sales ratio.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Mohammad Chhiddikur Rahman, Valerien Pede, Jean Balie, Isabelita M. Pabuayon, Jose M. Yorobe and Samarendu Mohanty

Because of the increasing differential between farm and retail prices, the study proposes to investigate the extent of market power in the rice value chain of Bangladesh…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasing differential between farm and retail prices, the study proposes to investigate the extent of market power in the rice value chain of Bangladesh using advanced econometric techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Stochastic Frontier Estimation approach on cross-sectional data, the study examines the price spread along the rice value chain to determine whether millers and wholesalers exercise market power.

Findings

Empirical results reveal that, on average, rice millers and wholesalers charge 33 and 29% above the marginal cost, respectively. This study confirms the non-competitive behavior of the rice market with wholesalers and millers wielding substantial market power

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that it does not include the retailers who also play a major role in the Bangladesh rice value chain. This is left for future study.

Originality/value

This study combines primary and secondary data collected on the Bangladesh rice sector to examine the market power of two major players along the value chain, millers and wholesalers, using an advanced econometrics approach.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Yongseung Han, Thomas Littlefield and Myeong Hwan Kim

This paper proposes the use of a gauge function as a measure of technical efficiency. The measure of technical inefficiency from a gauge function is desirable as the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes the use of a gauge function as a measure of technical efficiency. The measure of technical inefficiency from a gauge function is desirable as the estimation of a gauge function is not subject to the endogeneity problem under the behavioral assumption of profit maximization in the competitive market.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address three important properties of a gauge function, i.e. linear homogeneity, monotonicity and convexity in inputs and outputs, and show how such properties are utilized in its estimation. Then, the authors apply the estimation of a gauge function to US Blacksmiths in 1850 and 1880 to show that a failure to satisfy such properties may lead to an incorrect inference on the technical efficiency.

Findings

The authors find that the Blacksmiths in the 1850s were technically more efficient than the ones in the 1880s, indicating technical regress in Blacksmithing when the properties are satisfied.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a measure of technical inefficiency from a gauge function and shows how to estimate the gauge function parametrically for the measure. The authors show McFadden's gauge function and its properties, which differ from the properties of other distance functions. The authors emphasize linear homogeneity as well as monotonicity and convexity in inputs and outputs, which must be satisfied in the estimation of a gauge function.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2012

Mark Elam

Purpose – With reference to the long-term struggle to confirm cigarette smoking as a manifestation of nicotine addiction, this chapter explores the extent to which new…

Abstract

Purpose – With reference to the long-term struggle to confirm cigarette smoking as a manifestation of nicotine addiction, this chapter explores the extent to which new understandings of addictions as ‘appetitive disorders’ rather than ‘dependence disorders’ derive from treatment technology development as well as advances in basic scientific research.

Approach – Through historical analysis it is discussed how cigarette smoking only became widely accepted as a real drug problem in the 1980s after it had been shown to be amenable to treatment as such through the use of novel nicotine replacement therapies.

Findings – These replacement therapies succeeded in showing that the same drug that drew users into addiction could be redeployed to help draw up them out of it. Nicorette® could serve as at least the partial antidote to nico-wrong (cigarettes). However, as relapse to smoking has remained the most likely outcome of any smoking cessation attempt, so medicinal nicotine has also served to demonstrate that nicotine addiction is ultimately a problem of an uncontrollable appetite for cigarettes in excess of drug dependence.

Implications – Pharmaceutical incursion on cigarette smoking commencing in the late 1970s pointed to the need for a new mental disease model of drug-related problems while also providing valuable new tools and insights for ensuing brain research.

Details

Critical Perspectives on Addiction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-930-1

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