Action research which considers performance indicators within an English polytechnic is outlined, with emphasis on the analysis of course monitoring, review and validation documentation. Extracts from an interim research report are presented, together with related conclusions and recommendations.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the innovative application of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach for the design and implementation of organizational stress management interventions, alongside a case study of the successful design and implementation of the approach. By utilizing the AI methodology to develop a “local stress theory” for the participating organization, the authors propose a model which can be utilized in other similar organizations.
Stage 1: 35 participants completed up to ten daily logs by answering four positively framed questions regarding their working day. Stage 2: semi-structured interviews (n=13). The interview schedule was designed to further elaborate log findings, and begin looking into feasible organizational changes for improvement of stress. Stage 3: two focus groups (Stage 3, total 13 employees) verified interventions from logs and interviews and discuss how these can be implemented.
The log phase identified two key themes for improvement: managerial/organizational support and communication. From these, interviews and focus groups led to workable proposals for simple but likely effective changes. The authors reported findings to management, emphasizing organizational change implementation, and these were subsequently implemented.
The study demonstrated the effectiveness of AI to identify and implement relatively simple but meaningful changes. The AI cycle was completed but allocating lengthy follow-up time for evaluation of outcomes was not possible, although initial responses were favorable. There are also issues of generalizability of the findings.
This is the among first studies to utilize an AI approach for the design of stress management interventions.
Research on job precarity and job instability have largely neglected the labor market trajectories in which these employment and non-employment situations are experienced…
Research on job precarity and job instability have largely neglected the labor market trajectories in which these employment and non-employment situations are experienced. This study addresses the mechanisms of volatility and precarity in observed work histories of labor market entrants using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997. Several ideal-typical post-education pathways are modeled for respondents entering the labor force between 1997 and 2010, with varying indicators and degrees of precarity. A series of predictive models indicate that women, racial-ethnic minorities, and lower social class labor market entrants are significantly more likely to be exposed to the most precarious early careers. Moreover, leaving the educational system with a completed associate’s, bachelor’s, or post-graduate degree is protective of experiencing the most unstable types of career pattern. While adjusting for these individual-level background and education variables, the findings also reveal a form of “scarring” as regional unemployment level is a significant macro-economic predictor of experiencing a more hostile and turbulent early career. These pathways lead to considerable earnings penalties 5 years after labor market entry.
This paper explores the question of how librarians can win financial resources from their parent organisations. It maintains that securing funding is essential at a time of change and goes on to advocate practical techniques for improving the acquisition and management of financial resources. The paper examines the financial environment of many libraries, covering financial cuts, organisational changes, contracting out, service level agreements and income generation. The importance of the integration of libraries and information units within their parent bodies is considered. The paper stresses the importance of political skills in winning resources and explores what this means in practice for public, academic and special librarians. Finally, the paper looks at some aspects of austerity management.
This is the first in a series of three linked articles describing the major changes which are taking place in English public‐sector higher education as a result of the Education Reform Act 1988 and the replacement of the former National Advisory Body by the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council. Colleges in the sector are now free‐standing corporations, with new governing bodies heavily dominated by business interests. Government policy is to increase efficiency and value for money in the sector and thus to expand student numbers without a proportionate increase in costs. This article traces the first major acts of the new PCFC, especially the introduction of a new funding system, part of which brings competitive tendering into the state education system for the first time. The new system has posed significant new challenges to college management and could well be extended to schools and further education.
Reviews the history of political and professional debates on theoptimum size of public library authorities in the UK. Discussesconclusions on size in the major legislation…
Reviews the history of political and professional debates on the optimum size of public library authorities in the UK. Discusses conclusions on size in the major legislation and reports on public library policy prior to local government reorganization in 1974. Considers the effects of the 1974 local government reorganization and examines the subsequent continuing debate. Concludes that in the light of further impending modification of the UK local government system, further research is required into the structure and size of a public library service.
Reports professional librarians′ perspectives on the organizationalimplications of local government reform. Considers four main areas ofconcern: joint arrangements…
Reports professional librarians′ perspectives on the organizational implications of local government reform. Considers four main areas of concern: joint arrangements, contracting out, service disaggregation and economies of scale. Concludes that many professional librarians would be concerned at the service consequences resulting from a move to a greater number of smaller authorities.
Early stages of research concerning the implementation and evaluation of performance indicators within academic quality‐control procedures of an English polytechnic are described. The related perceptions of one distinctive group participating in validation/review processes – the course “Rapporteurs” – are considered before possible further developments of this qualitative illuminative enquiry are outlined.
Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the…
Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the potential contribution of older workers and skilled migrants in meeting labor supply shortages in ageing populations. This chapter presents labor supply and demand scenarios for 10 OECD countries and examines trends in the labor force participation of older workers against the backdrop of changes to the nature of work in an era of globalization, casualization, and, increasingly, automation. Brief analysis of each country’s situation and policy responses indicates that China, Japan, and Korea stand out as being at particular risk of being unable to maintain growth without undertaking drastic action, although their areas of focus need to differ. A limitation of the study is that GDP projections used in labor demand analysis were based on historical rates and represented past potential and a long-run average of historic economic output. Future research might also undertake comparative analysis of case studies addressing different potential solutions to workforce ageing. A key implication of the study is that there is a need to take a blended approach to public policy regarding older workers in a changing labor market. Where migration has historically been a source of labor supplementation, this may become a less viable avenue over the near future. Future shortfalls in labor imply that economies will increasingly need to diversify their sources of workers in order to maintain economic growth. For public policy makers the challenge will be to overcome public antipathy to migration and longer working lives.
Workers in the United States who lose their job may benefit from temporary assistance programs and may apply for Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income…
Workers in the United States who lose their job may benefit from temporary assistance programs and may apply for Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). We measure whether participation in four temporary assistance programs (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Unemployment Insurance (UI), and Temporary Disability Insurance programs (TDI)) influence application for DI, SSI, and re-employment. We instrument temporary assistance participation using variation in policies across states and over time. Results from our instrumental variables models suggest that increased access to UI benefits reduces applications for DI. This result is robust to different sensitivity checks. We also find less robust evidence that UI participation increases the probability of return to work and reduces the probability of claiming SSI benefits. In contrast, some of our results suggest a positive effect of SNAP participation on claiming SSI.