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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Alexander Farestvedt Hem and Magne Supphellen

The purpose of this study is to expand the notion of differentiation by developing and testing a typology of brand benefit differentiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to expand the notion of differentiation by developing and testing a typology of brand benefit differentiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand concept maps were used to identify three types of differentiation. The effects of the types of differentiation on benefit evaluation and brand attachment were tested in two follow-up studies using path analysis.

Findings

A comparison of the association maps of four international brands showed instances of all three types of benefit differentiation – categorical, graded and structural benefit differentiation. The tests of effects revealed that categorical benefit differentiation had negative effects, whereas structural and graded differentiation had positive effects on benefit evaluation and brand attachment, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that other types of benefit differentiation are more important than uniqueness. Future research should test the relevance and usefulness of the typology for other brands and consumer segments.

Practical implications

The new typology opens new opportunities for the differentiation of brands. Brand managers should avoid a myopic focus on uniqueness. Rather, they should analyze networks of benefit associations in detail for all three types of differentiation identified in this research and strengthen the level of structural and/or graded differentiation.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates, for the first time, the importance of two types of differentiation other than uniqueness. It also supports previous studies showing the negative effects of uniqueness on variables related to brand equity.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Sarah Forbes and Mark Avis

Construct Creation (CC) is a methodological problem occurring when a research process, instead of measuring an extant construct in the participant’s mind, creates the…

Abstract

Purpose

Construct Creation (CC) is a methodological problem occurring when a research process, instead of measuring an extant construct in the participant’s mind, creates the construct. The purpose of this paper is to argue that CC derives from problems around ecologically invalid research and attitudinal responses developed on the spot, both resulting from self-generated validity.

Design/methodology/approach

A between-subjects design was used to explore whether the personification prime (PP), a component of brand personality (BP) methodology, influenced the CC of BP for rocks. Analysis of qualitative data on how participants made their BP ratings in the absence of a PP was also completed.

Findings

Findings revealed that a methodology can enable CC in the participant’s mind, despite the construct being ecologically invalid prior to them participating in the study. Analysis also revealed that participants will use varied, and sometimes elaborate, strategies to enable CC and provide researchers with the answers to their questions.

Research limitations/implications

Previous research has drawn attention to CC as a problem but the implications of prior research have so far been “sidestepped”. Consequently, this paper demonstrates CC and why it is a problem, while rebutting some arguments made in prior research for sidestepping CC.

Practical implications

CC is a potentially serious methodological problem that can result in invalid findings informing or misdirecting theory used by practitioners. As such, this paper proposes methods to ameliorate CC and improve ecological validity of future research.

Originality/value

This study will contribute to methodological literature by refocusing attention to the currently neglected problem of CC and by proposing a model of CC by participants.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Dorothy Adair Kerrison, Margaret Depsky Condrasky and Julia L. Sharp

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of a combined budget-tailored culinary nutrition program for undergraduate nutrition-related majors on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of a combined budget-tailored culinary nutrition program for undergraduate nutrition-related majors on knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy and applicability to everyday life and future health careers.

Design/methodology/approach

A wait-list control (n=54) completed a six-week cooking with chef and shopping healthy on a budget cooking matters at the store program. Assessment questionnaires evaluated participants’ knowledge and program applicability. Data analysis included response frequency and statistical differences within and between treatment and control groups.

Findings

Significant differences identified at (<0.001) for cooking self-efficacy, self-efficacy for using basic cooking techniques, self-efficacy for using fruits, vegetables, seasonings, and the ability to use economical methods to purchase produce. Average score noted at 89 percent for knowledge of shopping healthy on a budget.

Research limitations/implications

Findings support positive effects of combining culinary nutrition training with food budget information. Concepts enhance self-efficacy in meal planning and preparation for entry level nutrition related graduates.

Originality/value

Combining culinary arts experience with applied human nutrition concepts training provide a basis for enhanced confidence for entry nutrition dietetics healthcare.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Yasin Boylu, Asli D.A. Tasci and William C. Gartner

The purpose of this paper is threefold: measure the differences in importance of cultural values between Turkish hosts and European guests; measure perceived cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: measure the differences in importance of cultural values between Turkish hosts and European guests; measure perceived cultural difference (distance) to see if importance of cultural values are commensurate with cultural distance perception; and identify potential influence of perceived cultural distance on job satisfaction for Turkish service providers (hosts) and trip satisfaction for European consumers (guests).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research was conducted in tourist towns in the Southwest part of Turkey to gather data from Turkish hosts (service providers) and European tourists. Two stepwise regression analyses were conducted to assess the magnitude of the relative impact of several variables on job satisfaction for hosts and trip satisfaction for guests.

Findings

Although results revealed differences in cultural values, cultural distance perception and satisfaction, the stepwise regression analyses did not reveal any influence of perceived cultural distance on satisfaction for either hosts or guests.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study may not apply to all tourism consumption settings since respondents were surveyed in a general tourism setting context rather than limiting them to a certain consumption setting such as a restaurant, a hotel or a cruise ship.

Originality/value

By shedding light on cultural distance and its influence on both demand and supply side aspects, this study addresses a long‐neglected aspect in literature. Although several studies provide discussions on the impact of culture on both service providers' and consumers' attitude and behavior, there is a lack of empirical studies on the relationship between cultural distance and satisfaction.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

June Won and J. Lucy Lee

The purposes of the study were (1) to examine whether directional dominance between co-existing athlete brands and sponsor brands exists; (2) to explore whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of the study were (1) to examine whether directional dominance between co-existing athlete brands and sponsor brands exists; (2) to explore whether directional dominance influences consumers' memory interference; and (3) to test whether brand interference interacts with directional dominance among brands to influence consumer evaluation and behaviors under multiple endorsement and sponsorship portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is a 3 (directional dominance: symmetric dominance vs. asymmetric dominance with existing vs. asymmetric dominance with newly endorsed brand) x 2 (brand memory interference: interference vs. no interference) between-subjects factorial design.

Findings

The results indicate that (1) directional dominance influenced consumer brand interference, and directional dominance interacted with brand interference on (2) brand evaluation and (3) purchase intention in multiple brand portfolios.

Originality/value

Considering that conventional single-sponsor sponsorship or single-endorser endorsement portfolios are increasingly rare, research on concurrent circumstances of multiple endorsers and multiple endorsed brands in multiple brand portfolios was necessary. By expanding and reconceptualizing the context of brand networks, this study provides empirical evidence on how the dominance and directionality between endorser and (existing and newly) endorsed brands—an athlete endorser's strong pre-existing association with an existing endorsed brand in particular—influenced consumer brand interference and the brand evaluation in multiple brand portfolios.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

I.T. Franks, M. Loftus and N.T.A. Wood

The use of computers on the shop floor has been slight comparedwith their widespread acceptance at higher levels in the manufacturingenvironment. Today, there is an…

Abstract

The use of computers on the shop floor has been slight compared with their widespread acceptance at higher levels in the manufacturing environment. Today, there is an urgency to redress this imbalance by investing in modern production facilities, but progress is being restricted by the void between the operational requirements of the upper and lower levels. The Discrete Cell Controller (DCC) is considered to be capable of satisfying this role. This article considers the measures taken by a consortium of industrial and academic partners to determine the specification of a DCC and, in particular, identify the generic content.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Verena Hüttl-Maack

This paper aims to build on research on the art infusion effect (Hagtvedt and Patrick, 2008a). It investigates the effect of using fine art in advertising and addresses…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build on research on the art infusion effect (Hagtvedt and Patrick, 2008a). It investigates the effect of using fine art in advertising and addresses additional factors that have not been assessed to understand and describe the process of art infusion more thoroughly. Thereby, the moderating role of the art interest of individuals and its interplay with the hedonic value of the product is studied. Effects on attitude and willingness to pay are revealed and the perceived value for money as a further mediating variable that drives the art infusion effect under some conditions is investigated. Moreover, the study examines the effect of the artwork’s familiarity.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental study follows a 3 (ad picture: photo, unknown painting, well-known painting) × 2 (art interest: low, high) × 2 (product type: highly hedonic, moderately hedonic) between-subjects-design. In total, 447 consumers were surveyed in museums, art exhibitions and neutral public spaces.

Findings

For a clearly hedonic product, the art infusion effect is independent of consumers’ art interest. For an only moderately hedonic and more ambiguous product, this effect only occurs for highly art interested individuals. Moreover, different mediating processes are revealed for these two product types in a moderated mediation model. An effect of familiarity cannot be verified.

Originality/value

Research on effects of art on consumer responses to brands and products is still very limited. In addition to existing research, this paper adds to the identification of boundary conditions and the explanation of drivers of the art infusion effect. Moreover, this is the first study that provides insights on how an artwork affects consumers’ willingness to pay.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Ingrid Gottschalk

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the list of boundary factors which impact consumer evaluation of ambient scenting. More specifically, this study aims at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the list of boundary factors which impact consumer evaluation of ambient scenting. More specifically, this study aims at demonstrating that pre-informing about the scenting measure, the particular environment in which the scenting takes place and the disposition of persuasion knowledge are necessary variables to be considered for achieving positive evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment was carried out in a local grocery store (a “pay-now” environment) and in a medical therapy centre (a “pre-paid” environment, n=200). The paper draws on the theoretical concept of spreading activation, the consumer decision process and the persuasion knowledge model. Data were analysed by using ANOVA and moderated regression analysis.

Findings

Consumers evaluated the scenting as more favourable when having been pre-informed about the marketing measure. Consumers were also more in favour of ambient scents in the usage-oriented, pre-paid service environment than in the purchase-oriented, pay-now store environment. Persuasion knowledge moderated the relationship between environment and evaluation of ambient scenting.

Research limitations/implications

As important research implication, the role of customers’ pre-information, environment and persuasion knowledge as boundary factors for scent marketing interventions is supported. These results can inform retailers how best to proceed in scent marketing. Future research could extend the present results with various informational measures and in different pre-paid and pay-now environments and experiment with different scents.

Practical implications

The results speak for pre-informing customers and using scents particularly in pre-paid environments, such as medical therapy centres. For customers with a higher level of persuasion knowledge, pre-information and a fitting environment are particularly advisable.

Originality/value

This paper adds important insight to scent marketing literature by addressing additional boundary factors which so far have been neglected. Methodologically, it differentiates itself by employing a field experiment, which offers higher external validity than laboratory experiments which are frequently used in scent research.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Marco Vriens, Song Chen and Judith Schomaker

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new brand association density metric and evaluate its performance in terms of correlations with recall, consideration, brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new brand association density metric and evaluate its performance in terms of correlations with recall, consideration, brand equity and market share and to compare different data collection methodologies to identify brand associations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present results from two studies covering three product categories. The authors use an open free association question and associations to a set of pre-defined brand attributes. The responses to the open free format question are text-mined prior to further analysis.

Findings

The authors find that the brand association density metric performs better than a metric that only uses the number of distinct associations. The authors also find that these metrics work best when derived from open free association data.

Practical implications

First, in addition to focusing on trying to build specific brand associations in consumers’ minds, it may be equally important, if not more important, to manage the number and inter-connectedness of the brand’s associations. Second, firms should complement their existing survey approaches with open-ended free association questions.

Originality/value

The brand association density concept presented is believed to be new. The empirical comparison between the use of free association to pre-defined attributes is also new.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2017

Steffi De Jans, Liselot Hudders and Veroline Cauberghe

This paper aims to examine the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for an embedded advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for an embedded advertising format, product placement and, subsequently, its persuasive effects. In addition, this study explored whether this effect is moderated by children’s general advertising liking. The study also investigated whether the effects of training were dependent on children’s ages.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is conducted using a three (training session: control condition vs advertising literacy training with immediate ad exposure vs advertising literacy training with ad exposure after one week) by two (age: 7-8 years vs 10-11 years) between-subjects experimental design.

Findings

The results of the experimental study showed that advertising literacy training increases children’s cognitive advertising literacy for product placement for both younger and older children and both immediately and delayed (measured after one week). In addition, cognitive advertising literacy had an influence on the effectiveness of product placement (i.e. purchase request) when children’s general ad liking was low, though not when it was high. No moderating effects of age were found.

Practical implications

This study shows that advertising literacy training sessions can improve children’s cognitive advertising literacy for non-traditional, embedded advertising formats.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine and confirm the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training sessions on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for non-traditional advertising formats.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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