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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nima Gerami Seresht, Rodolfo Lourenzutti, Ahmad Salah and Aminah Robinson Fayek

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes…

Abstract

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes and relies on the analysis of uncertain, imprecise and incomplete information, including subjective and linguistically expressed information. Various modelling and computing techniques have been used by construction researchers and applied to practical construction problems in order to overcome these challenges, including fuzzy hybrid techniques. Fuzzy hybrid techniques combine the human-like reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic with the capabilities of other techniques, such as optimization, machine learning, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and simulation, to capitalise on their strengths and overcome their limitations. Based on a review of construction literature, this chapter identifies the most common types of fuzzy hybrid techniques applied to construction problems and reviews selected papers in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique to illustrate their capabilities for addressing construction challenges. Finally, this chapter discusses areas for future development of fuzzy hybrid techniques that will increase their capabilities for solving construction-related problems. The contributions of this chapter are threefold: (1) the limitations of some standard techniques for solving construction problems are discussed, as are the ways that fuzzy methods have been hybridized with these techniques in order to address their limitations; (2) a review of existing applications of fuzzy hybrid techniques in construction is provided in order to illustrate the capabilities of these techniques for solving a variety of construction problems and (3) potential improvements in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique in construction are provided, as areas for future research.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Valeri E. Orel

Proposes use of the triboluminescence of blood and condensedexhaled air products (which accompanies mechano‐chemi‐emission effectsin biological objects) as a quantative…

Abstract

Proposes use of the triboluminescence of blood and condensed exhaled air products (which accompanies mechano‐chemi‐emission effects in biological objects) as a quantative test of levels of exposure, for example, to radiation. Describes trial of this technique on victims of the Chernobyl accident. Offers an explanatory model.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Michael Atkinson and Amanda De Lisio

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of…

Abstract

Purpose

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of “legacy” effects are poorly understood. This chapter presents a sociological examination of the sport mega-event legacy measurement process.

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, we reflect on our own involvement in legacy evaluation in the context of the 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games in Toronto to examine existing legacy measurement strategies, review their findings, and present a theoretical detour via the past for consideration in future sociological contributions to the legacy measurement process.

Findings

Data discussed in this chapter suggest a need for the creation of a more sociologically informed, methodologically robust and piecemeal rather than Utopian-oriented “report card” measurement device for legacy evaluation.

Practical implications

Based on the review of evidence, we contend that if sociologists of sport remain committed to keeping their roles, as public intellectuals, applied researchers or participatory activists in the sport for development/legacy nexus, those involved might do so with a greater attention to focusing on what Karl Popper (1961) refers to as piecemeal social engineering strategies and measurements, and attending to those legacies both on and off the event organizing committee radar screen.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Young Man Ko, Min Sun Song and Seung Jun Lee

This study aims to develop metadata of conceptual elements based on the text structure of research articles on Korean studies, to propose a search algorithm that reflects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop metadata of conceptual elements based on the text structure of research articles on Korean studies, to propose a search algorithm that reflects the combination of semantically relevant data in accordance with the search intention of research paper and to examine the algorithm whether there is a difference in the intention-based search results.

Design/methodology/approach

This study constructed a metadata database of 5,007 research articles on Korean studies arranged by conceptual elements of text structure and developed F1(w)-score weighted to conceptual elements based on the F1-score and the number of data points from each element. This study evaluated the algorithm by comparing search results of the F1(w)-score algorithm with those of the Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) algorithm and simple keyword search.

Findings

The authors find that the higher the F1(w)-score, the closer the semantic relevance of search intention. Furthermore, F1(w)-score generated search results were more closely related to the search intention than those of TF-IDF and simple keyword search.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the F1(w)-score was developed in this study to evaluate the search results of metadata database structured by conceptual elements of text structure of Korean studies, the algorithm can be used as a tool for searching the database which is a tuning process of weighting required.

Practical implications

A metadata database based on text structure and a search method based on weights of metadata elements – F1(w)-score – can be useful for interdisciplinary studies, especially for semantic search in regional studies.

Originality/value

This paper presents a methodology for supporting IR using F1(w)-score—a novel model for weighting metadata elements based on text structure. The F1(w)-score-based search results show the combination of semantically relevant data, which are otherwise difficult to search for using similarity of search words.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Virginia Vannucci and Eleonora Pantano

Upon reading this chapter, the reader will understand

  • How consumers perceive a privacy loss when exposed to retailers' big data analytics
  • The role played by the social…

Abstract

Learning Outcomes

Upon reading this chapter, the reader will understand

  • How consumers perceive a privacy loss when exposed to retailers' big data analytics

  • The role played by the social environment in terms of the opinions of relatives and friends largely influence how youth perceive the risk of privacy loss

  • What makes the information about retailers' usage of data not entirely accessible by consumers

  • Consumers perception of retailers' usage of their data

How consumers perceive a privacy loss when exposed to retailers' big data analytics

The role played by the social environment in terms of the opinions of relatives and friends largely influence how youth perceive the risk of privacy loss

What makes the information about retailers' usage of data not entirely accessible by consumers

Consumers perception of retailers' usage of their data

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Guirong Yang, Zhaoxia Pan, Zhenghai Zhang, Wenming Song, Ying Ma and Yuan Hao

This study aims to investigate the initial corrosion behavior in aqueous solution of 20# seamless steel under (CO2/aqueous solution) gas–liquid two-phase stratified flow…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the initial corrosion behavior in aqueous solution of 20# seamless steel under (CO2/aqueous solution) gas–liquid two-phase stratified flow conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial corrosion behavior was studied through the weight loss methods, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction.

Findings

The corrosion rate of 20# steel obviously increases with the increasing gas pressure at different corrosion time when the CO2 pressure is less than 0.11 MPa, and the increase of corrosion rate tends to be steady when the pressure exceeds 0.11 MPa. With the increase of CO2 pressure, the corrosion products changed from flocculent to acicular, granular and scaly. A four-stage model for the growth of the corrosion product layer was proposed, namely, the diffusion reaction stage, the local film formation stage, the complete film formation stage and the densification stage of the product film.

Originality/value

A four-stage model for the growth of the corrosion product layer on the pipe wall surface under this condition was proposed, namely, the diffusion reaction stage, the local film formation stage, the complete film formation stage and the densification stage of the product film. The growing process and densification mechanism of corrosion products layer were discussed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Umar Mir, Arpan Kumar Kar and Manmohan Prasad Gupta

This conceptual article’s primary aim is to identify the significant stakeholders of the digital identity system (DIS) and then highlight the impact of artificial…

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual article’s primary aim is to identify the significant stakeholders of the digital identity system (DIS) and then highlight the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on each of the identified stakeholders. It also recommends vital points that could be considered by policymakers while developing technology-related policies for effective DIS.

Design/methodology/approach

This article uses stakeholder methodology and design theory (DT) as a primary theoretical lens along with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) as a sub-theory. This article is based on the analysis of existing literature that mainly comprises academic literature, official reports, white papers and publicly available domain experts’ interviews.

Findings

The study identified six significant stakeholders, i.e. government, citizens, infrastructure providers, identity providers (IdP), judiciary and relying parties (RPs) of the DIS from the secondary data. Also, the role of IdP becomes insignificant in the context of AI-enabled digital identity systems (AIeDIS). The findings depict that AIeDIS can positively impact the DIS stakeholders by solving a range of problems such as identity theft, unauthorised access and credential misuse, and will also open a possibility of new ways to empower all the stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on secondary data and has considered DIS stakeholders from a generic perspective. Incorporating expert opinion and empirical validation of the hypothesis could derive more specific and context-aware insights.

Practical implications

The study could facilitate stakeholders to enrich further their understanding and significance of developing sustainable and future-ready DIS by highlighting the impact of AI on the digital identity ecosystem.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this article is the first of its kind that has used stakeholder theory, DT and IDT to explain the design and developmental phenomenon of AIeDIS. A list of six significant stakeholders of DIS, i.e. government, citizens, infrastructure providers, IdP, judiciary and RP, is identified through comprehensive literature analysis.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Ting‐Peng Liang, Jun‐Jer You and Chih‐Chung Liu

The purpose of this paper is to aggregate previous research that adopts the resource‐based view (RBV) to examine whether information technology (IT) and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aggregate previous research that adopts the resource‐based view (RBV) to examine whether information technology (IT) and organizational resources have significant effect on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework that includes direct and indirect‐effect models is proposed. A meta‐analysis was conducted on 42 published empirical studies to examine how different factors in the RBV affect firm performance.

Findings

First, it was found that the mediated model that includes organizational capabilities as mediators between organizational resources and firm performance can better explain the value of IT than the direct‐effect model without organizational capabilities. Second, technology resources can improve efficiency performance but may not enhance financial performance directly. Third, internal capabilities affect performance but it is external capabilities that affect financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of meta‐analysis is that findings are based on prior research conducted on different sources at different times. This may cause observation biases. Nonetheless, the large sample size can also increase the robust of the findings.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that companies should focus on how IT resources can be used to enhance their capabilities, which will result in better performance.

Social implications

The findings provide strong evidence that IT has contributed to both financial performance and organizational efficiency through strengthening organizational capabilities. The IT has been effectively used so far and the suspected productivity paradox does not exist.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to information management by increasing the theoretical and practical understanding of how IT resources affect organizational capabilities and firm performance. The findings provide valuable guidelines for future research on IT investment and firm performance.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

Margarita Georgousopoulou, Max Chipulu, Udechukwu Ojiako and Johnnie Johnson

Current research in the area of risk management within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) appears predisposed towards risk, predominantly dealing with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Current research in the area of risk management within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) appears predisposed towards risk, predominantly dealing with the willingness of SMEs to take on losses. However, in this pilot study, the authors aim to focus on a different aspect of risk management in SMEs, namely the risk preferences. Risk preferences in this case are regarded as the willingness of SME proprietors to take on risks that are likely to lead to investment gains.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is gathered via a combination of a survey questionnaire and a probability scenario toolset. The authors sampled a total of 150 SME proprietors operating in Greece. The data was analysed using a combination of regression models and binomial tests.

Findings

The results suggest that we cannot, as previous literature suggests, conclude that SME proprietors generally exhibit a negative risk preference.

Originality/value

In light of Greece's recent economic difficulty, and in acknowledgement of the critical role played by SMEs in the Greek economy, this study addresses a topical subject in entrepreneurship research: what are the factors determining investment risk preferences?

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Martijn Arets and Ricardo Nunes

In order to establish sustainable development, there is a need to focus on solutions effectively improving environmental performance. Effectiveness is the product of…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to establish sustainable development, there is a need to focus on solutions effectively improving environmental performance. Effectiveness is the product of significance and improvement potential. For buildings, the supporting structure is the predominant environmental load by materials, hence significant. The purpose of the studies presented in this paper is to determine the improvement potential of the supporting structure of buildings and explore other sustainable solutions effectively enhancing environmental performance.

Design/methodology/approach

For the same office layout, various combinations of structural components at different spans were studied. The environmental load of these variants was determined by means of an life cycle analysis (LCA)‐based model.

Findings

The studies presented in the paper demonstrated an environmental difference by a factor of 5 between the solutions performing worst and best. The optimal combination is the uncommon solution of TT‐slabs with timber beams and columns, expecting to establish an improvement factor of 4 with respect to common practice.

Practical implications

The findings of the studies presented suggest another way of building, with common structural components but whose combination is not common at present.

Originality/value

So far, sustainable building has not focused enough on effective solutions and has had little means to do so. Approaching the supporting structure of buildings rather than small, ineffective adaptations will significantly improve environmental building performance. An elaborate LCA of supporting structures had never been done before. The paper, on the one hand, rationalises sustainable building and, on the other hand, supports effective sustainable design.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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