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An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this…
An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this sensor and pattern recognition method, the possibility of identifying 15 chemical compounds which belong to the alcohol, ester, ketone, benzene and hydrocarbon group was examined. The following results were obtained: All 15 compounds have different patterns, so they can be individually identified; compounds which have the same functional groups have similar patterns; and, when gas sensitivity of three elements is displayed in a three‐dimensional space, the compounds with the same functional group form a specific closed space. This indicates that the sensor can identify functional groups of chemical compounds.
This paper aims to examine a copy Hiraga Gennai wrote advertising the toothpowder brand Sosekiko in terms of its target audience, product decisions pertaining to branding…
This paper aims to examine a copy Hiraga Gennai wrote advertising the toothpowder brand Sosekiko in terms of its target audience, product decisions pertaining to branding and packaging, pricing and advertising objectives and message appeals. A masterless samurai in the eighteenth century, Hiraga Gennai is considered Japan’s first advertising copywriter. Life of the versatile Renaissance man Gennai and the influences of his accomplishments on advertising in following generations are briefly discussed.
The research draws from a sampling of classical and contemporary literature as well as the interpretation of the images shown here. Visual content is described and analyzed as well.
Gennai’s witty and humorous advertising copy for handbills attracted the townspeople of Edo. The toothpowder market was mature and competitive, and Gennai’s copy emphasized differentiation through packaging and volume discount rather than ingredients. The advertising copy has culturally unique aspect: It appeals to the audience’s ninjo, or feelings of humanity, and explicitly solicited disseminating positive word-of-mouth by the audience.
This research shows that activities resembling more contemporary marketing practices, such as advertising and branding, for consumer products such as toothpowder existed in eighteenth-century Japan, more than a century prior to the paradigmatic development of marketing concept. The possibility for Gennai as a potential strategic marketing planner and implementer, in addition to advertising copywriter, is researched and analyzed.
ISHM (UK) presented a technical meeting on this topic on the 23rd October 1982 at the Cunard International Hotel, London. The meeting was attended by some 50 engineers, both those involved in the field of hybrids and potential users. It was generally felt that this was a useful meeting but more especially that it would have appealed to many potential users of hybrids, had the right people been able to be contacted.
The purpose of this paper is to study patients' attitudes to nurses and investigate what hampering factors occur in the actual nursing situation and what patient features…
The purpose of this paper is to study patients' attitudes to nurses and investigate what hampering factors occur in the actual nursing situation and what patient features might affect cooperative climates.
In‐depth interviews were conducted with 11 male inpatients suffering prostate cancer. The interviews were personal narrations based on open‐ended questions. The theoretical basis is founded in sense‐making, trust and competence.
Existential issues related to nursing care were interpreted by nurses as a need for (technical) information. However, respondents indicated a need for professional support regarding their whole life. The social climate seems not to be optimal for existential talk owing to hospital routines. Patients' personal traits also affect the propensity to cooperation, and three types were distinguished: cooperating patients; passive patients; and denying patients. Nurses' competence may be regarded as hierarchical levels from optimising single items, over system optimisation and to optimisation from the patient perspective. The study indicates that not even first‐level requirements are met.
Only patients' views were studied. Nurses' perceptions would add additional insights. Lack of personal relations and cooperation between patient and nurse may decrease service quality. Patient attitudes seem to be a major obstacle. For some patients, passively receiving technical information may be an excuse for not wanting to participate in mutual sense‐making. The supposed need for technical information may also be an excuse for nurses to avoid more sensitive issues.
Better quality of care involves changing patient perceptions and attitudes to what constitutes nursing competence.