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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2014

Laminu Kuburi, David Obada, Ibraheem Samotu, M. Jeremiah and Zainab Kashim

Considering pollution problems and the energy crisis today, investigations have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products…

Abstract

Considering pollution problems and the energy crisis today, investigations have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on the exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine at various speeds was established. Ethanol was extracted from groundnut seeds using fermentation method. Gasoline was blended with 20 - 80% of the extracted ethanol in an interval of 20%. Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels decreased carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions as a result of the lean- burn effects caused by the ethanol, and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission increased because of a near complete combustion. Finally, the results showed that blending ethanol in a proportion of 40% with gasoline can be used as a supplementary fuel in modern spark ignition engines as it is expected that the engine performs at its optimum in terms of air toxic pollutants reduction, by virtue of that mix.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Adamu Braimah Abille, Desmond Mbe-Nyire Mpuure, Ibrahim Yahaya Wuni and Peter Dadzie

The purpose of the paper was to investigate the role of fiscal incentives in driving foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the Ghanaian economy based on data from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper was to investigate the role of fiscal incentives in driving foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the Ghanaian economy based on data from 1975 to 2017 with the Eclectic paradigm as the theoretical basis. FDI inflows was the dependent variable whiles trade openness, corporate tax rate, exchange rate and market size were the independent variables with corporate tax rate as the main explanatory variable of interest.

Design/methodology/approach

The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test technique was employed to investigate Cointegration in the model. The results showed the presence of cointegration among the variables.

Findings

The results revealed that corporate tax rates have a significant negative impact on FDI inflows into the Ghanaian economy in the long run and significant positive impact on FDI inflows in the short run. In the context of Ghana, the positive short-run relationship observed is attributed to the lag effect of tax policy on FDI inflows.

Research limitations/implications

One obvious limitation of the research is that, it does not identify the specific foreign businesses that are more deserving of a low corporate rate and to what extent can that boost FDI inflows in Ghana. Another limitation is that the data analyzed in the paper is exclusively for Ghana and the findings may not be generalized for other countries.

Practical implications

Based on the research findings, it is recommended that the Ghana Revenue Service (GRA) restructures the corporate tax regime in the country to deal with the policy lapses. It is also recommended that low corporate rates should be maintained especially in respect of foreign companies that are into the production of goods and services for which indigenous companies in Ghana have a comparative disadvantage in order to drive FDI into the Ghanaian economy.

Originality/value

This paper is unique for providing up to date and dynamic insights into the tax incentive and FDI nexus in the Ghanaian context.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Chaozhi Cai, Leyao Fan and Bingsheng Wu

This paper aims to understand the outlet temperature distribution of the combustor of a high-temperature, high-speed heat-airflow simulation system.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the outlet temperature distribution of the combustor of a high-temperature, high-speed heat-airflow simulation system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses numerical simulation to study the temperature distribution of the combustor of a high-temperature, high-speed heat-airflow simulation system. First, the geometrical model of the combustor and the combustion model of the fuel are established. Then, the combustion of fuel in the combustor is simulated by using FLUENT under various conditions. Finally, the results are obtained.

Findings

The paper found three conclusions: when the actual fuel–gas ratio is equal to the theoretical fuel–gas ratio, the temperature in the combustor of the high-temperature, high-speed heat-airflow simulation system (HTSAS) can reach its highest and the distribution is the most uniform. Although increases in the total temperature of the inlet air can increase the highest temperature in the combustor of the HTSAS, the average temperature of the combustor outlet will decrease. At the same time, it will lead to an uneven temperature distribution of the combustor outlet. When the spray angle of the kerosene droplet is at 30 degrees, the outlet temperature field of the combustor is more uniform.

Originality/value

The paper presents a method to analyze the combustion performance of fuel and the gas temperature distribution in the combustor. The results will lay the foundation for the gas temperature control of a combustor.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Facundo Pieniazek, Agustina Roa Andino and Valeria Messina

Measuring texture parameters are time consuming and expensive; it is necessary to develop an efficient and rapid method to evaluate them. Image analysis can be a useful…

Abstract

Purpose

Measuring texture parameters are time consuming and expensive; it is necessary to develop an efficient and rapid method to evaluate them. Image analysis can be a useful tool. The purpose of this paper is to predict texture parameters in different beef cuts applying image analysis techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Texture parameters were analyzed by instrumental, image analysis techniques and by Warner–Bratzler shear force.

Findings

Significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained for image and instrumental texture features. Higher amount of porous were observed in freeze dried samples of beef cuts from Gluteus Medius and semintendinosus muscles. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image texture. High correlations were found between image and instrumental texture features. Instrumental parameters showed a positive correlation with image texture feature.

Originality/value

This research suggests that the addition of image texture features improves the accuracy to predict texture parameter. The prediction of quality parameters can be performed easily with a computer by recognizing attributes within an image.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Josephine Pui-Hing Wong, Alan Tai-Wai Li, Maurice Kwong-Lai Poon and Kenneth Po-Lun Fung

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the changing populations infected with and affected by HIV. Since 2005 immigrants and refugees from ethno-racial minority communities have comprised close to 20 percent of all new HIV infections in Canada. Anecdotes shared by PLWHAs and service providers indicated that mental health challenges faced by newcomer PLWHAs was a priority concern for HIV prevention, treatment and care. This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study, which examined the complex factors that influence the mental health of immigrants and refugees living with HIV/AIDS (IR-PLWHAs).

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is informed by a critical social science paradigm, which acknowledges that the everyday reality is shaped by interlocking systems of social processes and unequal power relations. The paper used a qualitative interpretative design and focus groups to explore the intersecting effects of living with HIV/AIDS, migration and settlement, and HIV stigma and discrimination on the mental health of IR-PLWHAs.

Findings

The paper found that in addition to social and economic marginalization, IR-PLWHAs experienced multiple stressors associated with their HIV status: neurocognitive and physical impairments, HIV stigma and discrimination, and fear of deportation. The paper also found that the experiences of stigma and discrimination among IR-PLWHAs were complex and contextual, closely linked to their social positions defined by the intersecting dimensions of race, class, gender, citizenship, sexualities, body norms, and HIV status. The paper concludes that effective HIV prevention, treatment and care, and mental health promotion in newcomer and ethno-racial minority communities must consider the bio-psycho-social connections of different stressors and the interlocking systems of oppression faced by IR-PLWHAs.

Research limitations/implications

This study was exploratory in nature with a small number of participants who were recruited through AIDS organizations in Toronto. Consequently, the recruitment strategy may reach only those who were connected to the AIDS organizations. The paper believes that IR-PLWHAs who were not connected to the AIDS organizations might experience even more social exclusion and marginalization. These factors may limit the transferability of this study.

Originality/value

This is the first study that explores the bio-psycho-social connections and intersecting determinants of mental health among immigrants and refugees living with HIV and AIDS in Canada. The results of this study contribute to cross-sector dialogue among practitioners and researchers in the HIV/AIDS, mental health, and immigration and settlement services sectors.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2015

Mark W. Conley and Hosun Kang

To demonstrate how teacher candidate narratives in response to videos depicting science and literacy instruction can be used to both teach and evaluate beginning teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

To demonstrate how teacher candidate narratives in response to videos depicting science and literacy instruction can be used to both teach and evaluate beginning teachers’ emerging conceptions of disciplinary literacy.

Methodology/approach

Teacher candidates viewed and responded to videos depicting exemplary practice in science education and then videos of their own practice. Qualitative discourse analysis was used to investigate the science teacher candidates’ interpretations of problems of practice, their views of scientific literacy and understandings of their students.

Findings

The teacher candidates displayed distaste for textbooks, reinforced by negative experiences with textbooks in school settings, and yet they viewed textbooks as essential for effectively teaching knowledge about science. At the same time, each viewed the natural world as the ideal “text” for teaching knowledge about science, at times compensating for the weaknesses of textbooks and at other times entirely replacing textbooks as the source of knowledge about science. We consider what this means for preparing teachers for effective subject matter and literacy practice.

Practical implications

Video reflections like these demonstrate that what teacher candidates understand about video representations of others’ and their own teaching are far from literal and are interpreted through the educational and background lenses of the teacher candidates’ themselves. We suggest that a great deal more work needs to be done to better understand how to use video reflection to best develop teacher candidates’ conceptions of subject matter and literacy practice.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

J.R. Carby‐Hall

This substantial article begins with an examination of two important grounds of discrimination: sex discrimination governed by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (and the…

Abstract

This substantial article begins with an examination of two important grounds of discrimination: sex discrimination governed by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (and the related Equal Pay Act 1970) and racial discrimination under the Race Relations Act 1976. Discussion is confined to the right not to be discriminated against and covers the detailed provisions of these acts in this respect, judicial precedents and important cases heard not only in the British courts but in the European Court of Justice. The third section of the article is about discrimination in connection with trade union membership and activities governed by the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

J.R. Carby‐Hall

The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and the related Equal Pay Act 1970, and the Race Relations Act 1976 have not been consolidated by the Employment Protection (Consolidation…

Abstract

The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and the related Equal Pay Act 1970, and the Race Relations Act 1976 have not been consolidated by the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978. Each of the Acts treats sex and race discrimination in a general and broad sense. Both make similar provisions in connection with various aspects of discrimination in employment. Since one act is inspired by the other, the judicial precedent in sex discrimination cases will normally be followed in racial discrimination cases and vice versa. Both Acts are outlined and the grounds that constitute discrimination discussed as well as permissible discrimination. Enforcement of the Acts and liability is detailed. Discrimination in connection with trade union membership and activities is also examined. The right not to have action short of dismissal taken against the employee and remedies for action short of dismissal are discussed.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2011

Tamara K. Nopper

This chapter explores how discourse about Barack Obama's community organizing background underscores his new Black politics. Whereas new Black politics is associated with…

Abstract

This chapter explores how discourse about Barack Obama's community organizing background underscores his new Black politics. Whereas new Black politics is associated with a minimization of race, centrist and neoliberal policies, and an unwillingness to “speak truth to power,” Obama has been characterized as “different” due to his community organizing experience. As I show, Obama's community organizing background is invoked by him and others in ways that amplify an opposition to Black racial solidarity associated with the tradition of old Black politics. The first section examines how Obama's community organizing is depicted as a quest for racial acceptance from old guard Black activists but translates into a story of his political maturation. The second section considers how Obama's relationship with his (now) former pastor Reverend Jeremiah Wright is symbolized as a struggle between old and new Black politics and thus serves as a commentary on the presumed ineffectiveness of racial solidarity for addressing the plight of working-class Blacks.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

David Jeremiah

This is the second in a series of three articles describing the automation system, based on McDonnell Douglas' URICA package used in the Department of Printed Books at the…

Abstract

This is the second in a series of three articles describing the automation system, based on McDonnell Douglas' URICA package used in the Department of Printed Books at the National Library of Wales. A description of the Cataloguing Module is given, including developments to respond to changing working practices and problems inherent in the original system design. The Retrospective Record Conversion procedures are described and the likely impact of CD‐ROM technology is recognised. Finally the Enquiry/Public Access and Circulation modules are described giving short‐comings of the existing system and suggested ways to improve the facilities in the future.

Details

Program, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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