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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Kashif Ghafoor, M. Issa Khan and M. Ali Raza

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to increase its shelf life and consumer's attraction. Fermentation is mostly done by yeast but it does not produce appreciable amounts of organic acids, which are required to enhance the shelf life of bread. The present study aims to determine the effect of bacterial and yeast culture blends on the quality and shelf life of sourdough bread and to observe the sugar utilization during fermentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Three treatments were made using different blends of bacterial cultures (homo‐fermentative and hetero‐fermentative) and baker's yeast compared with a control having only baker's yeast. Chemical analysis, sugar utilization (Sucrose, glucose and fructose) through high performance liquid chromatography, sensory characteristics (both internal and external) and microbial count (Bacterial and fungal count) for each treatment were conducted at different storage intervals.

Findings

The hetero‐fermentative bacteria i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum along with baker's yeast exhibited the best results regarding the utilization of sugars during fermentation (after 3 h of fermentation 0.0158 mg/ml sugar remained), objective evaluation of bread and its sensory characteristics. The bread prepared using the blend of hetero‐fermentative bacteria (0.5 per cent) and yeast (0.5 per cent) also showed greater resistance against bacteria (9×101 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) and mold (1.1 ×  102 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) growth.

Research limitations/implications

Hetero‐fermentative bacteria along with baker's yeast can be utilized in sour dough to improve major bread characteristics. This study is a step further in improving the shelf life of sourdough.

Originality/value

Presently only baker's yeast is being used by bread industry for fermentation purpose but a blend of bacterial culture along with baker's yeast can give better performance for better quality and shelf life of the bread.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Sarfraz Ahmad, M. Issa Khan and Zafar Iqbal

The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine contents in potatoes are similar to animal protein and its flour can be utilized to overcome protein and calorie malnutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite flours were prepared by substituting wheat flour with potato flour at 20 per cent, with guar gum 3 per cent and GMS at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. The blends were subject to proximate analysis and calorific value determination. Naan prepared from composite flours were evaluated by panel of judges to access suitable level of supplementation.

Findings

Statistical analysis revealed significant decrease in moisture, protein, crude fiber while increase in the fat content of composite flour. Replacement of wheat flour by potato flour has non significant effect on the ash and carbohydrates contents nitrogen free extract (NFE). Moisture, protein and fat contents decreased significantly with the passage of time during storage while crude fiber, ash content and NFE were found to be non‐significantly affected by duration of storage. Potato flour at 20 per cent level of substitution along with 3 per cent guar gum and 0.6 per cent GMS was found to be acceptable by panel of judges having maximum acceptability of naan.

Practical implications

Potato flour supplementation can be done through roller flour mills or small scale grinders (chakki) to enhance the value of flour to be used by masses in order to overcome the protein malnutrition as quantity of potato flour protein is comparable to animal protein.

Originality/value

Presently potatoes are consumed as vegetable and during peak season processed into flour, starch and dried products. Potato flour is rarely used for the production of baked products in Pakistan. Potatoes are rich in starch, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2, ash content, fiber content and essential amino acids as compared to cereals. Thus potato flour can utilized to improve the energy status of masses. Research conducted was unique in its nature as effect of both storage periods was evaluated and the suitable levels of replacement of potato flour were investigated.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Issa Khan, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul Rahman, Mohd Yakub @ Zulkifli Bin Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor and Kamaruzaman Bin Noordin

This study aims to find out the problems of family Takaful (Islamic Life Insurance) operations in Bangladesh and proposes strategies to overcome the problems.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find out the problems of family Takaful (Islamic Life Insurance) operations in Bangladesh and proposes strategies to overcome the problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 32 respondents from two family Takaful operators in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Findings

The study finds a number of problems of family Takaful which relate to the government, Takaful company and the Shariah board. Lack of governing guidelines for Takaful companies in Bangladesh is causing numerous operational problems of family Takaful. To overcome these obstacles, the government should propose separate Act for Takaful. This requires support from the stakeholders along with Islamic scholars in the country.

Practical implications

It is anticipated that the findings and suggestions of the study will assist the policymakers in improving the situation of family Takaful companies particularly in Bangladesh.

Social implications

If the proposed suggestions are implemented in Takaful companies, the problems facing Takaful will likely be solved and more people will take part in Takaful. This would contribute to developing the country economically, raise Islamic values and foster peace and harmony in the society.

Originality/value

Mainly, this study is based on the primary research that has been conducted in family Takaful companies in Bangladesh.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Hadi Kashefi, Ahmad Sadegheih, Ali Mostafaeipour and Mohammad Mohammadpour Omran

To design, control and evaluate photovoltaic (PV) systems, an accurate model is required. Accuracy of PV models depends on model parameters. This study aims to use a new…

Abstract

Purpose

To design, control and evaluate photovoltaic (PV) systems, an accurate model is required. Accuracy of PV models depends on model parameters. This study aims to use a new algorithm called improved social spider algorithm (ISSA) to detect model parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve performance of social spider algorithm (SSA), an elimination period is added. In addition, at the beginning of each period, a certain number of the worst solutions are replaced by new solutions in the search space. This allows the particles to find new paths to get the best solution.

Findings

In this paper, ISSA is used to estimate parameters of single-diode and double-diode models. In addition, effect of irradiation and temperature on I–V curves of PV modules is studied. For this purpose, two different modules called multi-crystalline (KC200GT) module and polycrystalline (SW255) are used. It should be noted that to challenge the performance of the proposed algorithm, it has been used to identify the parameters of a type of widely used module of fuel cell called proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Finally, comparing and analyzing of ISSA results with other similar methods shows the superiority of the presented method.

Originality/value

Changes in the spider’s movement process in the SSA toward the desired response have improved the algorithm’s performance. Higher accuracy and convergence rate, skipping local minimums, global search ability and search in a limited space can be mentioned as some advantages of this modified method compared to classic SSA.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Ayman Issa, Mohammad A.A. Zaid, Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha and Ammar Ali Gull

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. education, gender, nationality and royal family members) on voluntary corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. education, gender, nationality and royal family members) on voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure for a sample of banks listed in the Arabian Gulf Council countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines to construct the CSR disclosure index. The empirical analysis is based on the data of banks listed in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries over the period 2011–2019. To tackle the potential issue of endogeneity, the authors apply the system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation approach to investigate the relationship between board diversity and CSR disclosure index.

Findings

The findings of the analysis show that there is a significant relationship between board diversity and the level of voluntary CSR disclosure. Specifically, the authors find that diversity captured by the education level, nationality and the presence of royal family members on board is positively associated with the level of voluntary CSR disclosure while diversity captured by the gender of board members is negatively associated with the level of voluntary CSR disclosure.

Practical implications

The regulators, policymakers, stakeholders and the board of directors become aware of the diversity mechanisms that must be used to promote CSR practices in the banking sector of Arabian Gulf countries.

Originality/value

The authors extend the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the association between board diversity and voluntary CSR disclosure practices of banks operating in the Arabian Gulf countries. This study also highlights that board gender diversity may have a different impact on voluntary CSR disclosure between developed countries and developing countries. This paper also provides preliminary evidence on the importance of education level, the presence of foreign and royal directors on board to influence CSR practices of banks operating in the Arabian Gulf countries.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2021

Nermain Al-Issa and Nathalie Dens

This study aims to understand the impact of religiosity and acculturation to the global consumer culture (AGCC) on Muslims’ perception of luxury values. Prior results on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the impact of religiosity and acculturation to the global consumer culture (AGCC) on Muslims’ perception of luxury values. Prior results on the effect of religion/religiosity on luxury consumption and purchase intentions are inconsistent. Then, while AGCC is argued to affect consumers’ perceptions of luxury values, research in this area is scarce.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an online questionnaire with 300 Kuwaiti respondents recruited from a paid consumer panel, the authors explore the relations between religiosity and AGGC on the one hand and luxury values on the other through linear regressions.

Findings

Religiosity enhances the perceived extended self, perfectionism, materialistic and sustainable value of luxury. AGCC enhances Muslims’ perception of all luxury values under study. Globalized Muslims mainly perceive luxury as means of self-identification.

Originality/value

The study is the first, to the knowledge, to investigate the impact of religiosity and AGCC on Muslims’ perception of luxury values. The authors propose an integrative set of luxury values that reflect both the social and personal value of luxury. The study focuses on Muslims in Kuwait; a potential luxury market that is under-investigated.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Mahdi Salehi, Hossein Tarighi and Malihe Rezanezhad

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the relationship between some characteristics of corporations including firm size, financial leverage…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the relationship between some characteristics of corporations including firm size, financial leverage, profitability, firm age and the type of industry with social responsibility disclosure of firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE); and second, to study the association between the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) and some of the audit variables such as audit fees, audit tenure and audit firm’ size.

Design/methodology/approach

The study population consists of 125 firms listed on the TSE during the years 2010–2015. Following Salehi et al. (2017), content analysis is used to measure the level of social responsibility disclosure, and hypotheses are performed using multiple regression analysis and R software.

Findings

The results represented that there is a positive significant relationship between a firm size and a firm age with the level of CSRD. However, there is a negative significant association between financial leverage and profitability with the level of CSRD. Given that CSRD is different among various industries and the type of industry can be an influential factor in CSRD, an industry type’ variable in the fourth hypothesis is of a type of index variable and has eight levels, of which the first level is ranked as the base level. Our findings showed that the level of CSRD at industries of machinery and appliances, production of metal products, food and beverage products, and textiles is lower than the baseline level (pharmacy). Nevertheless, companies in the fifth industry (mineral products) have a higher level of CSRD in comparison with the pharmacy industry. Moreover, the authors find that there is a significant positive connection between audit fees and CSRD. This implies that Iranian managers in an inflationary economy probably manage earnings when they provide more CSRDs, which leads to increase in the audit risk and audit fees.

Practical implications

Needless to say, the findings of this paper will have practical implications for investors, auditors and other users of financial statements. First of all, this study will aware them of the fact that when a country faces economic sanctions and most of its companies are in financial strain investors should not consider the firms engaging in corporate social responsibility activities to behave morally and provide transparent financial reports. Second, the results will convince auditors to be conservative toward the firms that are financially distressed, for audit risk of them will be high. Thus, policymakers should be cautious concerning directors’ opportunistic actions and increase monitoring to enforce social obedience.

Originality/value

The turning point of this research is related to the time period of research related to firms that have faced severe financial problems due to economic sanctions. In fact, the study revealed another aspect of CSRD that could have negative consequences when managers are in financial strain and take opportunistic actions.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Ayman Issa, Hesham Yousef, Ahmed Bakry, Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha and Ahmad Sahyouni

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks listed in 11 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the system generalized method of moments estimation approach on the data of banks listed in the MENA countries over the period 2011–2018 to investigate the relationship between board diversity and financial performance. Also, the findings are supported by additional robustness tests, including ordinary least squares, fixed and random effect techniques.

Findings

The empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between board diversity and financial performance in banks. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that board diversity related to nationality has a significant positive impact on bank performance. The findings also show an insignificant association between gender and educational level diversity and bank performance. The robustness analysis supports the findings of the baseline model.

Practical implications

The study provides multi-country evidence on the importance of board diversity in the MENA region and it sheds light on possible tracks for future reforms aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the board’s functions.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the association between board diversity and financial performance of banks in the MENA countries. This paper also provides preliminary evidence on the importance of board diversity to influence financial performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Muhammad Issa Khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Imran Pasha, Ayesha Sameen and Muhammad Nadeem

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the…

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436

Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition of chapattis, normally legume flour is used in the region. The purpose of the current study is to assess the nutritional quality and safety of chapattis supplemented with soy flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat and soybean were procured and soy flour was prepared. Trypsin inhibitor contents and mineral contents of different flour and chapattis prepared were determined. Chapattis were prepared from different flour blends and whole wheat flour. To assess the quality and acceptability, the chapattis were presented to a panel of judges and the sensory evaluation was carried out for color, taste, aroma, chew ability, folding ability and overall acceptability characteristics. The data obtained for each parameter were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance.

Findings

The phytic acid and trypsin content were higher in un‐autoclaved soy flour supplement composite flour. The defattening of soy flour also increases the level of these anti‐nutrients in chapattis. The phytate and trypsin content of composite flour decreased as a result of baking. The protein, fiber and ash contents of composite flour increased while moisture content and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) decreased by the addition of soy flour. Mineral contents of chapattis except Mn increased by the incorporation of soy flour. The chapattis were found acceptable by the panel of judges at 10 percent replacement level of whole wheat flour by soy flour.

Practical implications

The results of the study indicate that 10 percent supplementation of soy flour in wheat flour was found acceptable by consumers as it did not affect the sensory attribute. For improved nutrition and to combat protein energy malnutrition, chapattis flour can be supplemented with soy flour.

Originality/value

The soy supplementation of wheat flour will improve the nutritional quality of the chapatti flour as soy flour is rich in high‐quality protein and mineral. The anti‐nutritional can be minimized or inactivated by autoclaving the soybean.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Muhammad Saeed, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Issa Khan and Muhammad Nadeem

Whey products have conventionally been professed as a means of reducing ingredient costs. The authentic benefits of adding whey products are the enhanced worth resulting…

Abstract

Purpose

Whey products have conventionally been professed as a means of reducing ingredient costs. The authentic benefits of adding whey products are the enhanced worth resulting from flavor, texture and nutritional improvements as well as nutraceutical or health‐enhancing payback. Therefore, the present study aims to isolate and characterize suitable starter cultures for the production of wheyghurt drink.

Design/methodology/approach

Keeping in view all the benefits of yoghurt technology this study was planned to isolate the starter cultures and optimize the conditions for the production of wheyghurt drink. The starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbruceckii ssp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were isolated from the yoghurt and further characterized on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The wheyghurt drink prepared from starter cultures with varying starter culture concentrations (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 percent) was analyzed for the physicochemical and sensory characteristics to explore the potential of wheyghurt drink.

Findings

During storage, color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability were affected significantly. But the interaction between treatments and storage was found non‐significant to all the sensory parameters. At zero day maximum score (7.40) for overall acceptability was recorded for T3 and minimum score (5.60) was awarded to T4. After five, ten and 15 days of storage, judges observed a slight decline in overall acceptability in all wheyghurt drink samples. Hence it was concluded that wheyghurt drink sample T3 obtained maximum scores regarding the organoleptic evaluation and remained the best.

Practical implications

The key to growth is a continuous evaluation and modification of the product to match consumer expectations. Currently there are many apparent benefits that result from incorporating selected whey products into yogurt formulas. The starter cultures for the production of fermented whey products are not presently produced in Pakistan and are imported for industrial use. The use of LAB as starter culture may help to improve the quality and shelf life of the whey products.

Originality/value

The research is useful for food manufacturers in order to develop functional food products for consumers. Understanding consumer needs and preferences is critical to successful product development and enhancing marketing values of a product. Nutritionally improved foods, such as wheyghurt over the conventional counterpart, will be highly successful in the marketplace. Consumers will prefer such kinds of foods because they are more conscious about their health and such foods provide them with what they desire, i.e. health benefits with good nutrition.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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