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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

M. Grujicic, S. Ramaswami, J. S. Snipes, R. Yavari and P. Dudt

The design of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) currently in use was optimized by its designers in order to attain maximum protection against ballistic impacts (fragments…

Abstract

Purpose

The design of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) currently in use was optimized by its designers in order to attain maximum protection against ballistic impacts (fragments, shrapnel, etc.) and hard-surface/head collisions. Since traumatic brain injury experienced by a significant fraction of the soldiers returning from the recent conflicts is associated with their exposure to blast, the ACH should be redesigned in order to provide the necessary level of protection against blast loads. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, an augmentation of the ACH for improved blast protection is considered. This augmentation includes the use of a polyurea (a nano-segregated elastomeric copolymer) based ACH external coating. To demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, blast experiments are carried out on instrumented head-mannequins (without protection, protected using a standard ACH, and protected using an ACH augmented by a polyurea explosive-resistant coating (ERC)). These experimental efforts are complemented with the appropriate combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient non-linear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction finite-element analysis.

Findings

The results obtained clearly demonstrated that the use of an ERC on an ACH affects (generally in a beneficial way) head-mannequin dynamic loading and kinematic response as quantified by the intracranial pressure, impulse, acceleration and jolt.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported combined experimental/computational study of the blast-protection efficacy and the mild traumatic brain-injury mitigation potential of polyurea when used as an external coating on a helmet.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

M. Grujicic, A. Arakere, B. Pandurangan, A. Grujicic, A. Littlestone and R. Barsoum

Polyurea falls into a category of elastomeric co‐polymers in which, due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding, the microstructure is of a heterogeneous nature and…

Abstract

Purpose

Polyurea falls into a category of elastomeric co‐polymers in which, due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding, the microstructure is of a heterogeneous nature and consists of a compliant/soft matrix and stiff/hard nanometer size hard domains. Recent investigations have shown that the use of polyurea as an external or internal coating/lining had substantially improved ballistic‐penetration resistance of metallic structures. The present work aims to use computational methods and tools in order to assess the shock‐mitigation ability of polyurea when used in the construction of different components (suspension‐pads, internal lining and external coating) of a combat helmet.

Design/methodology/approach

Shock‐mitigation capability of combat helmets has become an important functional requirement as shock‐ingress into the intra‐cranial cavity is known to be one of the main causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the shock mitigation capability of polyurea, a combined Eulerian/Lagrangian fluid/solid transient non‐linear dynamics computational analysis of an air/helmet/head core sample is carried out and the temporal evolution of the axial stress and particle velocities (for different polyurea augmented helmet designs) are monitored.

Findings

The results obtained show that improvements in the shock‐mitigation performance of the helmet are obtained only in the case when polyurea is used as a helmet internal lining and that these improvements are relatively small. In addition, polyurea is found to slightly outperform conventional helmet foam, but only under relatively strong (greater than five atm) blastwave peak overpressures.

Originality/value

The present approach studies the effect of internal linings and external coatings on combat helmet blast mitigation performance.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mica Grujicic, S Ramaswami, Jennifer Snipes, Ramin Yavari and Philip Dudt

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the design of the advanced combat helmet (ACH) currently in use, by its designers in order to attain maximum protection against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the design of the advanced combat helmet (ACH) currently in use, by its designers in order to attain maximum protection against ballistic impacts (fragments, shrapnel, etc.) and hard-surface/head collisions. Since traumatic brain injury experienced by a significant fraction of the soldiers returning from the recent conflicts is associated with their exposure to blast, the ACH should be redesigned in order to provide the necessary level of protection against blast loads. In the present work, augmentations of the ACH for improved blast protections are considered. These augmentations include the use of a polyurea (a nano-segregated elastomeric copolymer)-based ACH external coating/internal lining.

Design/methodology/approach

To demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, instrumented (unprotected, standard-ACH-protected, and augmented-ACH-protected) head-mannequin blast experiments are carried out. These experimental efforts are complemented with the appropriate combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient non-linear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis.

Findings

The results obtained indicated that: when the extent of peak over-pressure reduction is used as a measure of the blast-mitigation effectiveness, polyurea-based augmentations do not noticeably improve, and sometimes slightly worsen, the performance of the standard ACH; when the extent of specific impulse reduction is used as a measure of the blast-mitigation effectiveness, application of the polyurea external coating to the standard ACH improves the blast-mitigation effectiveness of the helmet, particularly at shorter values of the charge-detonation standoff distance (SOD). At longer SODs, the effects of the polyurea-based ACH augmentations on the blast-mitigation efficacy of the standard ACH are inconclusive; and the use of the standard ACH significantly lowers the accelerations experienced by the skull and the intracranial matter. As far as the polyurea-based augmentations are concerned, only the internal lining at shorter SODs appears to yield additional reductions in the head accelerations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work contains the first report of a combined experimental/computational study addressing the problem of blast-mitigation by polyurea-based augmentation of ACH.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes and S. Ramaswami

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept using advanced computational methods and tools. The concept involves the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept using advanced computational methods and tools. The concept involves the use of a protective structure consisting of bimolecular reactants displaying a number of critical characteristics, including: a high level of thermodynamic stability under ambient conditions (to ensure a long shelf-life of the protective structure); the capability to undergo fast/large-yield chemical reactions under blast-impact induced shock-loading conditions; large negative activation and reaction volumes to provide effective attenuation of the pressure-dominated shockwave stress field through the volumetric-energy storing effects; and a large activation energy for efficient energy dissipation. The case of a particular bimolecular chemical reaction involving polyvinyl pyridine and cyclohexyl chloride as reactants and polyvinyl pyridinium ionic salt as the reaction product is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Direct simulations of single planar shockwave propagations through the reactive mixture are carried out, and the structure of the shock front examined, as a function of the occurrence of the chemical reaction. To properly capture the shockwave-induced initiation of the chemical reactions during an impact event, all the calculations carried out in the present work involved the use of all-atom molecular-level equilibrium and non-equilibrium reactive molecular-dynamics simulations. In other words, atomic bonding is not pre-assigned, but is rather determined dynamically and adaptively using the concepts of the bond order and atomic valence.

Findings

The results obtained clearly reveal that when the chemical reactions are allowed to take place at the shock front and in the shockwave, the resulting shock front undergoes a considerable level of dispersion. Consequently, the (conserved) linear momentum is transferred (during the interaction of the protective-structure borne shockwaves with the protected structure) to the protected structure over a longer time period, while the peak loading experienced by the protected structure is substantially reduced.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first attempt to simulate shock-induced chemical reactions at the molecular level, for purposes of blast-mitigation.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

M. Grujicic, J.S. Snipes, R. Galgalikar, S. Ramaswami, R. Yavari, C.-F. Yen, B.A. Cheeseman and J.S. Montgomery

The purpose of this paper is to develop multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been improved with respect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been improved with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties (strength, in particular) within the weld.

Design/methodology/approach

The improved GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt-welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler-metal electrodes made of the same material. A critical assessment is conducted of the basic foundation of the model, including its five modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: first, electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; second, radiation/convection controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; third, prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; fourth, the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and fifth, spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties.

Findings

The predictions of the improved GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

Originality/value

To explain microstructure/property relationships within different portions of the weld, advanced physical-metallurgy concepts and principles are identified, and their governing equations parameterized and applied within a post-processing data-reduction procedure.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Mica Grujicic, Subrahmanian Ramaswami, Jennifer Snipes, Rohan Galgalikar, Ramin Yavari, Chian-Fong Yen, Bryan Cheeseman and Jonathan Montgomery

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) joining process that has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) joining process that has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic limit (i.e. penetration resistance) of the weld.

Design/methodology/approach

The original model consists of five modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones.

Findings

The upgraded GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt-welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler-metal electrodes made of the same material. The predictions of the upgraded GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to establish, using computational modeling, functional relationships between the GMAW process parameters and the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic limit of the resulting weld.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mica Grujicic, Ramin Yavari, Jennifer Snipes, S. Ramaswami and Roshdy Barsoum

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda-lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass sandwich…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda-lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass sandwich structures under dynamic-loading conditions involving propagation of planar longitudinal shockwaves.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of shockwave generation, propagation and interaction with material boundaries is investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The results obtained are used to construct basic shock Hugoniot relationships associated with the propagation of shockwaves through a homogeneous material (polyurea or glass, in the present case). The fidelity of these relations is established by comparing them with their experimental counterparts, and the observed differences are rationalized in terms of the microstructural changes experienced by the shockwave-swept material. The relationships are subsequently used to predict the outcome of the interactions of shockwaves with polyurea/glass or glass/polyurea material boundaries. Molecular-level simulations are next used to directly analyze the same shockwave/material-boundary interactions.

Findings

The molecular-level simulations suggested, and the subsequent detailed microstructural analyses confirmed, the formation of topologically altered interfacial regions, i.e. polyurea/glass and glass/polyurea interphases.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is a first attempt to analyze, using molecular-level simulation methods, the interaction of shockwaves with material boundaries.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

M. Grujicic, R. Yavari, J. S. Snipes and S. Ramaswami

The purpose of this paper is computer-aided engineering analysis of the recently proposed side-vent-channel concept for mitigation of the blast-loads resulting from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is computer-aided engineering analysis of the recently proposed side-vent-channel concept for mitigation of the blast-loads resulting from a shallow-buried mine detonated underneath a light tactical vehicle. The concept involves the use of side-vent-channels attached to the V-shaped vehicle underbody, and was motivated by the concepts and principles of operation of the so-called “pulse detonation” rocket engines. By proper shaping of the V-hull and side-vent-channels, venting of supersonically expanding gaseous detonation products is promoted in order to generate a downward thrust on the targeted vehicle.

Design/methodology/approach

The utility and the blast-mitigation capacity of this concept were examined in the prior work using computational methods and tools which suffered from some deficiencies related to the proper representation of the mine, soil, and vehicle materials, as well as air/gaseous detonation products. In the present work, an attempt is made to remove some of these deficiencies, and to carry out a bi-objective engineering-optimization analysis of the V-hull and side-vent-channel shape and size for maximum reduction of the momentum transferred to and the maximum acceleration acquired by the targeted vehicle.

Findings

Due to the conflicting nature of the two objectives, a set of the Pareto designs was identified, which provide the optimal levels of the trade-off between the two objectives.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first public-domain report of the side-vent-channel blast-mitigation concept.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

M. Grujicic, J.S. Snipes, S. Ramaswami, R. Yavari, C.-F. Yen and B.A. Cheeseman

The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of substitution of steel with fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite in military-vehicle hull-floors, and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of substitution of steel with fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite in military-vehicle hull-floors, and identifies and quantifies the associated main benefits and shortcomings.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is investigated using a combined finite-element/discrete-particle computational analysis. Within this analysis, soil (in which a landmine is buried), gaseous detonation products and air are modeled as assemblies of discrete, interacting particles while the hull-floor is treated as a Lagrangian-type continuum structure. Considerable effort has been invested in deriving the discrete-material properties from the available experimental data. Special attention has been given to the derivation of the contact properties since these, in the cases involving discrete particles, contain a majority of the information pertaining to the constitutive response of the associated materials. The potential ramifications associated with the aforementioned material substitution are investigated under a large number of mine-detonation scenarios involving physically realistic ranges of the landmine mass, its depth of burial in the soil, and the soil-surface/floor-plate distances.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed both the benefits and the shortcomings associated with the examined material substitution, suggesting that they should be properly weighted in each specific case of hull-floor design.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first public-domain report of the findings concerning the complexity of steel substitution with composite-material in military-vehicle hull-floors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2010

M. Grujicic, V. Sellappan, G. Arakere, J.M. Ochterbeck, Norbert Seyr, Andreas Obieglo, Marc Erdmann and Jochen Holzleitner

The purpose of this paper is to propose and analyse computationally a new concept for mechanical interlocking between metal and plastics. The approach utilizes some of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and analyse computationally a new concept for mechanical interlocking between metal and plastics. The approach utilizes some of the ideas used in the spot‐clinching joining process and is appropriately named “clinch‐lock polymer metal hybrid (PMH) technology.”

Design/methodology/approach

A new approach, the so‐called “direct‐adhesion” PMH technology, is recently proposed Grujicic et al. to help meet the needs of automotive original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers for a cost‐effective, robust, reliable PMH technology which can be used for the manufacturing of load‐bearing body‐in‐white (BIW) components and which is compatible with the current BIW manufacturing‐process chain. Within this approach, the necessary level of polymer‐to‐metal mechanical interconnectivity is attained through direct adhesion and mechanical interlocking.

Findings

In an attempt to fully assess the potential of the clinch‐lock approach for providing the required level of metal/polymer mechanical interlocking, a set of finite‐element based sheet‐metal forming, injection molding and structural mechanics analyses is carried out. The results obtained show that stiffness and buckling resistance levels can be attained which are comparable with those observed in the competing injection over‐molding PMH process but with an ∼3 percent lower weight (of the polymer subcomponent) and without the need for holes and for over‐molding of the free edges of the metal stamping.

Originality/value

The paper presents a useful discussion of clinch‐lock joining technology's potential for fabrication of PMH load‐bearing BIW components.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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