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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Alfred Ogle and David Lamb

Purpose: An examination of the uptake and application of Robotic, Artificial Intelligence and Service Automation (RAISA) technologies by the events industry.…

Abstract

Purpose: An examination of the uptake and application of Robotic, Artificial Intelligence and Service Automation (RAISA) technologies by the events industry.

Design/methodology/approach: Academic and practitioner literature review and analysis pertaining to the relevance of RAISA in events.

Findings: The events industry has tended to rely on automation in staging and event production and the application of RAISA in events has been limited but holds great potential for the future. Whereas, in the hospitality and tourism industries RAISA has been applied across a range of service functions. For example, in such industries, artificial intelligence, machine learning and service robotics technologies have become commonplace. Nonetheless, the same level of adoption of RAISA in events is less evident particularly in front-of-house operation, due largely to the incompatibility with the raison d'être of event attendance – the purposive congregation of people seeking an event experience.

Research limitations/implications: The findings are the views of the authors and are therefore reliant upon existing events management literature on RAISA and their interpretation of this information and its application to the events industry.

Practical implications: RAISA has the capacity to play a crucial technical function in the events industry. However, it needs to be acknowledged that an event is essentially an experiential product which is simultaneously delivered and consumed in a particular setting/venue. RAISA applications and techniques avail event management immense sustainability and growth potential.

Social implications: Events are expressions of human social interactions and activities. Given the recent trend in sports media consumption as a substitute for live event attendance compounded by barriers to event attendance such as heightened terrorism threat and high expense/cost, there is a real risk of degradation of the social significance of the events industry. The prudent uptake of RAISA has the potential to emolliate the barriers to attendance while facilitating effective marketing and industry sustainability.

Originality/value: This chapter provides a new perspective in focusing on the potential applicability of RAISA in event management practice.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

M. Foley, M. Frew, D. McGillivray, A. McIntosh and G. McPherson

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational…

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Abstract

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research gathered as part of a report produced on each of the above sectors and written by the above authors. The report was supported by the Scottish Skills Fund in a grant to SPRITO, the national training organisation for these sectors. Although labour market intelligence suggests there are various skills shortages in these sectors and a lack of qualified personnel, the tension between the role of formal education and vocational work‐based learning qualifications is palpable. Solutions to apparent incommensurability of the two positions are offered, designed to ensure that these sectors achieve competitive advantage from a workforce that is both competent and reflective in their work practice.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Nicola Jayne Williams-Burnett and Paula Kearns

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic and is the fourth biggest cause of death worldwide. Numerous campaigns and initiatives have been implemented globally but yet…

Abstract

Purpose

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic and is the fourth biggest cause of death worldwide. Numerous campaigns and initiatives have been implemented globally but yet participation levels remain static. The purpose of this paper is to offer sports providers, educators, policy makers and facilitators a new perspective on consumer values and the consumption of physical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers conducted a quantitative questionnaire and collected 342 responses through Facebook (social media) from the geographical region, South Wales. Data were analysed using independent t-tests to compare the means between two unrelated groups (active/non-active) against the Sport and Physical Activity Value Model value dimensions.

Findings

The findings are divided into three sections of consumption (pre, consumption, post), results identify differences of consumer values between the active and non-active respondents. For example, service values, the non-active individual have higher expectations of the servicescape and provider than active individuals, suggesting that servicescape concept is one of the key dimensions of consumer value.

Research limitations/implications

The study was confined to one geographic region (South Wales) and only quantitative data were collected when further studies will require exploratory qualitative methods to have a greater understanding.

Practical implications

Findings from this study have been used to assist with the design and creation of an exercise class within a deprived area focussing on the values of consumption for the active and non-active. This study offers the sports provider, educator, policy maker another viewpoint of the consumption of physical activity.

Originality/value

Extant literature on physical activity predominately focusses on levels and there is little benefits in the way of understanding the dimensions of consumer values and the consumption of physical activity. This study contributes to this literature.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Maria Garbelli, Asta Adukaite and Lorenzo Cantoni

The debate on tourism sustainability and its contribution to local development has been very active, especially in connection with world heritage sites (WHSs). The…

Abstract

Purpose

The debate on tourism sustainability and its contribution to local development has been very active, especially in connection with world heritage sites (WHSs). The analysis conducted was intended to evaluate the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in promoting sustainable tourism, stating the relevance given online by local and international operators to the fact a destination was a WHS and to its commitment over sustainability issues. With this aim, the authors aim to take the perspective of a person navigating online to collect information on possible travel to a specific globally recognised WHS: the Victoria Falls.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, for its structure, the authors propose the UN World Tourism Organisation book on sustainability (Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook, 2013) to define a framework suitable for a content analysis of websites and mobile applications – available to a prospective traveller, interested in visiting the Victoria Falls, one of the most known WHSs in Africa, not directly for a heritage end.

Findings

There are 91 available online resources that have been studied to assess whether the Victoria Falls is an area recognised and protected by UNESCO; the presence of sustainability-related contents; and the importance of information providers covering this topic and sharing with readers. A potential tourist to the Falls is not well informed online about issues related to sustainable tourism; his attention is likely not to be drawn to such issues, at least not explicitly. The results show there is plenty of room to improve the online communication value of an area recognised by UNESCO.

Originality/value

Literature does not offer other studies linking both WHSs and sustainability (and the related issues) to ICTs and adopting the tourist point of view. Using a WHS case, the results give evidence of the lack of a proper online communication, underlying the outstanding value of the area, and the destination’ initiatives towards sustainability. Results suggest how relevant could be for a destination to offer a proper and complete online communication, to educate travellers about the several implications of being a WHS and about a sustainable and responsible behaviour in case they choose to visit it.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Beom Jun Bae and Yong Jeong Yi

The purpose of this paper is to understand consumers’ preferences for answers about sexually transmitted diseases on social question and answer (Q&A) sites by employing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand consumers’ preferences for answers about sexually transmitted diseases on social question and answer (Q&A) sites by employing message features and information sources as conceptual frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study compared best answers selected by questioners with their randomly drawn counterpart non-best answers on Yahoo! Answers as a paired sample (n=180).

Findings

The findings indicate that questioners on social Q&A sites were more likely to prefer answers including message features such as numeric information, social norms, optimistic information, and loss-framing, as well as information sources that featured expertise, references, and links to other websites. Pessimistic information was negatively associated with questioners’ preference for answers.

Research limitations/implications

The study extended the discussion of consumers’ selection of best answers to message features and information sources as additional criteria.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that answerers on social Q&A sites communicate more effectively with their audiences by utilizing persuasive communication.

Social implications

There is a quality issue on social Q&A sites. The findings will be helpful for health professionals to develop answers that are more likely to be selected as best answers, which will enhance overall quality of health information on social Q&A sites.

Originality/value

Consumers’ preference criteria for health information have been investigated using many different approaches. However, no study has used a persuasion framework to examine how consumers appraise answer quality. The present study confirmed consumers’ preference criteria as found in previous social Q&A studies and extended the discussion of consumers’ perceptions of answer quality by applying the frameworks of message features and information sources.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Teresa Silva Dias, Katerina Novotná, Helder Zimmermann Oliveira, Carlos Azevedo, Nuno Corte-Real, Pavel Slepička and António Manuel Fonseca

The purpose of this paper is to perceive the perspective of Portuguese and Czech’ talented athletes regarding: the main reasons pointed to drop out of sport, putting into…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perceive the perspective of Portuguese and Czech’ talented athletes regarding: the main reasons pointed to drop out of sport, putting into analysis motivational factors; the conciliation of School and Sport, and how the organization of schools and sports contexts are articulated in relation to the training and promotion of students, athletes and citizens; and the contributions (positive/negative) of sports to daily life and society.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative approach to interview eight talented athletes from different sports that had to drop out the practice of sport and explores their narratives regarding experiences and the relational dynamics between sports contexts and schools.

Findings

Athletes identify factors that led to drop out: the coach profile or the methodology and dynamics of practicing/training; time consuming; and the impossibility of reconciling sports with school/job. Athletes can identify the sport’s culture, self-development and health being as positive contributions of sports, whereas injuries were referred as the main negative factor of sport. As proposal of changes, athletes referred to the need of a more professional organization of the sport contexts and to more proximity between school policies and sport policies allowing conciliating both.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation that could be pointed to this research is the difference between the Czech and Portuguese socio-cultural and political situation, not only in the concept and organization of sports activities (since scholar years) but also in the general society. This difference could have more visibility when interpreting the data that led to this fact referred above.

Practical implications

It is recommended a more proximity relationship between researchers and the contexts of practice (sport contexts) being that it is important that these contexts should have feedback from the investigations carried out. Only in this way coaches, federations and confederations can be aware of the motivational factors that lead to talented athletes drop out, and make a greater investment in initial formation of the coaches and propose policies that try to establish partnerships with schools or professional contexts which could help the management of athletes’ times outside of sport.

Originality/value

Departing from the athletes’ feelings, concerns and motivations related to sport and the reasons that led to their drop out, we argue for the definition of public policies, in both countries, that promote non-discrimination of young people who wish to maintain a path linked to sports in articulation with other areas of their lives.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Kelly MacKay, Danielle Barbe, Christine M. Van Winkle and Elizabeth Halpenny

This study explores the multi-phasic experience of festivals to understand the nature, purpose and degree of social media (SM) use before, during and after festival…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the multi-phasic experience of festivals to understand the nature, purpose and degree of social media (SM) use before, during and after festival occurrence and how this may inform better engagement of attendees.

Design/methodology/approach

A census of tweets and posts from four festivals’ Twitter handles and Facebook accounts were coded and analyzed across three time points: one week prior, during and one week after the festival. They were coded on nature (e.g. conversational, promotional, informational), purpose (e.g. information-seeking, friendship/relationship) and presence of links, photos, etc. Tests for platform influences on usage were conducted.

Findings

In total, 1,169 tweets and 483 posts were captured. Two-thirds of SM activity occurred during the festivals, one-third pre-festival and minimal activity post festival. Temporal analyses found that while the purpose and nature of the message content varied across festival time points, this was often dependent on SM platform.

Research limitations/implications

Festivals are not taking advantage of the multi-phase experience model and the utility of SM to maintain contact and encourage visitors to continue processing their experience after the festival. This lost opportunity has implications for re-patronizing behaviour and sponsor relationships.

Originality value

Leung et al. (2013a) call for sector specific research to elucidate SM use in tourism. Festivals provide a unique environment of co-created experience. Findings suggest differential usage of SM across festival time frames and platforms that can be used to guide festival organizations’ SM communication to better engage its patrons.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Ricky K.F. Cheong and Eric Tsui

This paper aims to describe the roles and values of personal knowledge management (PKM). It seeks to investigate the roles of PKM in the KM process cycle and assess the

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the roles and values of personal knowledge management (PKM). It seeks to investigate the roles of PKM in the KM process cycle and assess the values for improving the competences of both individuals and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model was developed based on a critical review of KM and the PKM literature, followed by a survey of the KM participants in KM associations/interest groups/societies. The results and conclusions were made based on the quantitative analysis approach.

Findings

The results indicate that PKM is playing important roles in the KM process and both individuals and organizations are benefitting by PKM in improving their competences. The roles of PKM are positively correlated to the values of PKM for individuals and organizations. It is also found that the values of PKM for individuals are correlated to the values of PKM for the organization.

Research limitations/implications

This study is intended as a starting point for exploring the roles and values of PKM. It aims to provide a generalized model of PKM, with further research required for specific contexts.

Originality/value

The conceptual model of PKM 2.0 was developed based on the research findings which provide a better understanding in the area of PKM. This model also sets the foundation for future research and draws the attention of both academics and business executives in this under‐explored area. Up to now, there is no PKM framework or model that leverages on the Web 2.0 concepts. This paper provides the first examination of such aspects.

Details

VINE, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Josef A. Mazanec

Travel counseling and recommender systems on the Internet have not yet become smart enough to fulfill the elementary functions a fastidious consumer may expect. The…

Abstract

Travel counseling and recommender systems on the Internet have not yet become smart enough to fulfill the elementary functions a fastidious consumer may expect. The EU‐funded project named DieToRecs (http://dietorecs.itc.it/) aims at improving recommender system functionality by incorporating relevant findings from tourist behavior research. The computational intelligence needed to optimize the user‐system encounter greatly depends on how far the user has advanced in his travel decision process. This report elaborates the levels of counseling intelligence, explores the basic marketing paradigm of matching the products/services desired and offered, and ponders on the consequences for devising a recommender or counseling system capable of learning.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 57 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Sharon Cox and David King

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate an innovative approach to embedding employability in the design of a university degree scheme using skill sets.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate an innovative approach to embedding employability in the design of a university degree scheme using skill sets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper looks at conventional approaches to course design, which begin with the resources already available within the higher education institute. The skill sets approach, however, begins with employers because they are the ultimate arbiters of employability. Employers working with the academic design team define coherent portfolios of skills: definitions which are then used to provide shape and form to the new degree scheme.

Findings

The paper finds that employers can identify skill sets that relate to long‐term employability as opposed to short‐term employment. These definitions can usefully inform the design of a degree scheme.

Practical implications

The approach of this paper may benefit the design of degree schemes that aim to educate a graduate to fulfil an identifiable role in industry. This approach is based on defining the continuing intellectual and critical thinking skills that enable a graduate to fulfil a role, rather than the immediate task‐related skills that enable a graduate to fulfil a job. The involvement of employers in formulating a portfolio of graduate skills can be applied to the design of other schemes.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new approach to making employability the priority when developing a new degree scheme.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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