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The industrialization of the Asian economies beyond Japan has been an accomplishment. This chapter presents a study of selected parameters, pointing to the structural…
The industrialization of the Asian economies beyond Japan has been an accomplishment. This chapter presents a study of selected parameters, pointing to the structural changes of Asia's traditional agricultural economies, as the process of their industrialization progressed over several decades of the last millennium.
Drawing insights from the culture-centered approach (Dutta-Bergman, 2004; Dutta, 2007), the purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings of, experiences with, and…
Drawing insights from the culture-centered approach (Dutta-Bergman, 2004; Dutta, 2007), the purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings of, experiences with, and information sources for antibiotics among at-risk yet understudied populations in urban and economic margins in the Global South.
Given the exploratory purpose of this paper, it used qualitative approach specifically focus group discussions with mothers, guardians and female senior citizens from Manila, Philippines.
Antibiotics had multiple meanings – from purposes and modes of acquisition to side-effects. Experiences with antibiotics were not only tied to financial difficulties, but also in administering antibiotics to children or wards and managing side-effects. Furthermore, medical doctors were the most accessed and preferred sources of antibiotics-related information.
To date, this paper is one of the few to argue that knowing the conditions into which antibiotics are situated in the Global South is critical for strengthening global public health campaigns and policies against antimicrobial resistance a and reducing global health inequity.
Robert Mundell is the father of the concept of optimum currency area (Mundell, 1961) and he has since then taught us a great deal more about it (Mundell, 1970, 1999…
Robert Mundell is the father of the concept of optimum currency area (Mundell, 1961) and he has since then taught us a great deal more about it (Mundell, 1970, 1999, 2003). President Kennedy reminded his fellow countrymen that it is the strength of the US dollar, bolstered by the strength of the US economy, not the US military arsenal, which contributes to the international leadership of the USA. Saburo Okita sought to explain policy approaches in the framework of economic regional communities in the context of global economic cooperation, and thus responded to the question if we will have one world or several (Okita, 1989, 1994). Indeed, he pioneered the concept of multiple currency areas.
Historically, Asia was known for its history of ancient civilizations, philosophies and religions, performing arts and exotic lifestyles, and of course, spicy culinary specialties. The rest of the world made tremendous efforts to discover this land of charm and mysticism. Asia, however, was not known for its economic scores. In general, the Asian economies were preindustrialized, traditional, and agricultural. The share of gross domestic product (GDP) from the agricultural sector was relatively large as the industrial revolution had yet to reach Asia. People farmed with primitive indigenous tools and the marginal productivity of labor was low. Hence, the income of the individual farmer, man or woman, remained insignificant and poverty was the overall end product. As late as the 1970s, ranking economists questioned if Asia beyond Japan could ever industrialize (Krugman, 1994; Lau and Kim, 1994). The doubt is no more. The historic success of the import–export-led growth model in the context of Asia has been robustly explained (Klein, 1990). The world now marvels at the success of Asia's industrial revolution.
One world at one step will be too big a step. For some one in Luxembourg, it will be relatively more convenient to locate Latvia on the map of Europe, but to search for Laos in Asia will be too much of a task. A man or a woman in Nepal can easily guess that Mongolia is somewhere in the continent of Asia, but he or she will have great difficulty in figuring out where Martinique is in South America. A citizen of Chad will have less problem in locating Burkina Faso on the map of Africa, but will struggle hard to find Brunei Darussalam in Asia. The message is simple and straightforward. The map of a continent is easily accessible, but the map of the world is much too large and relatively unfamiliar. Hence, the European Union (EU) covering the continent of Europe and its progress over the past half century toward successfully developing a framework of continental regionalization has become a learning model.
On January 1, 1999, the euro became the common currency of the 11 Member States of the European Union (EU) – Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy…
On January 1, 1999, the euro became the common currency of the 11 Member States of the European Union (EU) – Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, to be joined by Greece in 2000. The 12 were joined by Slovenia on January 1, 2007, Malta and Cyprus on January 1, 2008, and Slovakia on January 1, 2009. Estonia was scheduled to be the 17th member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2011, and was admitted to the Eurozone membership in September 2010. Following Slovenia and Slovakia, Estonia is the third former Communist state to join the Euro regime. It is, however, the first former Soviet republic to earn this honor. The remaining East European countries, who were admitted to EU membership by the Treaty of Rome in 2004, will become members of the Eurozone after a process of scrutiny. Each must satisfy the terms of the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, three of the original EU-15 countries, continue to be outside the Eurozone. However, Sweden and Denmark have limited exchange rate fluctuations with the euro. The United Kingdom has a different story. Its economic structure and its relatively small share of world GDP have become an issue. The declining share of the United Kingdom's pound sterling as an international reserve currency warrants much critical evaluation.
Allied forces commanded by the American five star General Dwight D. Eisenhower won the War in Europe on May 8, 1945, and Western Europe was liberated. Immediately thereafter, in 1947, President Truman signed the Marshall Plan to make funds available for the economic reconstruction of war-ravaged Europe. To the applause of thousands of Europeans, President Kennedy stood at the high podium facing the Berlin Wall and proclaimed, “I am a Berliner.” President Reagan called for the end of the Cold War and the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. During the conflicts in Southeastern Europe in the 1990s, President Clinton led the war under North Atlantic Treat Organization (NATO) command, with full support of European allies, and stopped the massacre of innocent peoples in the region. Since WWII, the core of America's European policy has been one of participation and cooperation.