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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Harsimran Kaur Sidhu and M. Claire Greene

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to have a poor health status because of being diagnosed with a range of physical and mental health conditions and…

Abstract

Purpose

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to have a poor health status because of being diagnosed with a range of physical and mental health conditions and experience disparities in health care. The purpose of this study is to find barriers to health care experienced by adults with ASD and find gaps in health care which health-care providers can work to fill.

Design/methodology/approach

This scoping review aimed to identify studies that report on disparities in health and health-care service provisions experienced by adults with ASD. The authors included articles that described health-care disparities for patients with ASD and were published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and April 2022. The authors searched the following databases and medical journals to search for eligible studies: Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, Sage Publications and Embase. The authors comprehensively searched key terms related to ASD, health care and disparities.

Findings

The core defining features of ASD, which include communication and social impairments and deficits in sensory processing, were found to be barriers in the health-care experience of adults with ASD. Continued research and changes in health care, such as developing interventions to empower patients, adequately training providers and increasing the accessibility of the health-care system, are necessary to ensure adults with ASD receive adequate medical care.

Research limitations/implications

Additionally, clarifying the current literature on this topic can guide future research efforts to explore the influence of factors such as gender and the spectrum of autism itself leading to various levels of abilities and their influence on the health-care experience of adults with ASD.

Practical implications

Overall, the findings from this scoping review underline the importance of providing readily accessible evidence-based, age-appropriate primary and hospital health care for adults with ASD.

Social implications

Further interventions are needed to empower patients, adequately train providers, increase the accessibility of the health-care system, increase support for ASD patients and decrease discrimination.

Originality/value

This paper is a scoping literature review of the original work done by researchers in the field of developmental disorders and health care.

Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2010

Isobel Claire Gormley and Thomas Brendan Murphy

Ranked preference data arise when a set of judges rank, in order of their preference, a set of objects. Such data arise in preferential voting systems and market research surveys…

Abstract

Ranked preference data arise when a set of judges rank, in order of their preference, a set of objects. Such data arise in preferential voting systems and market research surveys. Covariate data associated with the judges are also often recorded. Such covariate data should be used in conjunction with preference data when drawing inferences about judges.

To cluster a population of judges, the population is modeled as a collection of homogeneous groups. The Plackett-Luce model for ranked data is employed to model a judge's ranked preferences within a group. A mixture of Plackett- Luce models is employed to model the population of judges, where each component in the mixture represents a group of judges.

Mixture of experts models provide a framework in which covariates are included in mixture models. Covariates are included through the mixing proportions and the component density parameters. A mixture of experts model for ranked preference data is developed by combining a mixture of experts model and a mixture of Plackett-Luce models. Particular attention is given to the manner in which covariates enter the model. The mixing proportions and group specific parameters are potentially dependent on covariates. Model selection procedures are employed to choose optimal models.

Model parameters are estimated via the ‘EMM algorithm’, a hybrid of the expectation–maximization and the minorization–maximization algorithms. Examples are provided through a menu survey and through Irish election data. Results indicate mixture modeling using covariates is insightful when examining a population of judges who express preferences.

Details

Choice Modelling: The State-of-the-art and The State-of-practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-773-8

Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Judith M. Harackiewicz, Yoi Tibbetts, Elizabeth Canning and Janet S. Hyde

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in…

Abstract

Purpose

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement?

Design/methodology/approach

We have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values – students’ perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students’ personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts.

Findings

We review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work.

Originality/value

These interventions are exciting for their broad applicability in improving students’ academic choices and performance, they are also exciting regarding their potential for contributions to basic science. The combination of laboratory experiments and field experiments is advancing our understanding of the motivational principles and almost certainly will continue to do so. At the same time, interventions may benefit from becoming increasingly targeted at specific motivational processes that are effective with particular groups or in particular contexts.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Vision of Quality: How Evaluators Define, Understand and Represent Program Quality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-101-9

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2001

Abstract

Details

Vision of Quality: How Evaluators Define, Understand and Represent Program Quality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-101-9

Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Thorsten Teichert, Philipp Wörfel and Claire-Lise Ackermann

Snacking typically occurs as an automatic, consciously uncontrolled process which can lead to unintended health consequences. Grounded cognition informs about the multifaceted…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacking typically occurs as an automatic, consciously uncontrolled process which can lead to unintended health consequences. Grounded cognition informs about the multifaceted drivers of such automatic consumption processes. By integrating situation-, stimulus-, and person-specific factors, this study provides a holistic account of snacking.

Design/methodology/approach

A combined psychophysiological and behavioral experiment is conducted wherein participants can casually snack chocolate while participating in a survey setting. Implicit cognitions are assessed with the Implicit Association Test. The percentage of consumed chocolate serves as dependent variable in a Tobit regression with predictors at situation, stimulus and person level.

Findings

Chocolate snacking is positively influenced by personal craving tendencies, implicit food associations and situational contingency. We condense the results into an overarching framework in line with grounded cognition literature.

Practical implications

The multidimensional framework can guide consumer protection efforts to reduce excessive snacking habits based on situation, stimulus and person.

Originality/value

This study integrates theory from social cognition, consumer research, and behavioral food research and, thereby, extends the existing body of knowledge on grounded cognitions underlying snacking consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2018

Christy McConnell Moroye and P. Bruce Uhrmacher

The purpose of this paper is to examine, from a curricular perspective, fresh ideas emanating from the USA that have potential to improve educational settings across the globe. As…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine, from a curricular perspective, fresh ideas emanating from the USA that have potential to improve educational settings across the globe. As such, this conceptual undertaking begins by arguing that little attention is being paid to the quality of present experiences in schools and classrooms. Stated differently, there is too much focus on tests, standards, workforce development and college readiness. Subsequently, educators are ignoring present experiences, which in the authors’ view may lead to mis-education rather than education.

Design/methodology/approach

To assist the authors in understanding this problem, as well as remedying it, they examine John Dewey’s ideas about experience generally and his notions of continuity and interaction in particular. From there, the authors argue that to delve deeply into present experiences, educators might use ideas found in aesthetic and ecological education. They elaborate upon each based on their prior research into a style of aesthetic education called CRISPA, an acronym that stands for connections, risk-taking, sensory experiences, perceptivity and active engagement, and a mode of ecological education called ecological mindedness.

Findings

The authors suggest that educators use CRISPA. Further, they argue that attention be paid to ecological care, interconnectedness and integrity.

Originality/value

The authors believe that workforce development and college readiness are important goals, but to achieve these goals, as well as any others deemed important by educators in their local contexts, we must focus on the quality of present experiences for both teachers and students. Only then will we have an education worthy of the appellation.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Kristina A. Bourne

Informed by socialist feminist theory, the purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of societal factors such as governmental policies, labor market structure, social…

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Abstract

Purpose

Informed by socialist feminist theory, the purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of societal factors such as governmental policies, labor market structure, social norms, and gender ideology on the experiences and practices of women small business owners in Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative data gathered during four months of fieldwork in Sweden, the analysis focuses on the case of Malin Andersson, the founder of a domestic services company, to show how individual situations are intimately connected to the larger social, political, and economic environments.

Findings

The analysis demonstrates how the complexities of gender and class dynamics interact with business endeavors in a capitalist society with a strong social democratic political system. In particular, the paper shows how Malin Andersson's experience of entrepreneurship is at the nexus of many social forces, creating many contradictions and paradoxes to understanding her experience.

Originality/value

The theoretical framework and empirical evidence suggest that paying attention to the socio‐economic‐political context is vital to illuminate the contradictions inherent, but often overlooked, in women's experience of entrepreneurship in different situations.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Candida G. Brush, Patricia G. Greene and Friederike Welter

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief history of the evolution of the Diana Project and the Diana International Research Conference. The authors examine the impact of…

1648

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief history of the evolution of the Diana Project and the Diana International Research Conference. The authors examine the impact of the publications, conferences and research contributions and consider key factors in the success of this collaborative research organization. They discuss the ongoing legacy, suggesting ways to extend this into the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses an historical narrative and a citation analysis.

Findings

The Diana Project was founded by five women professors in 1999 with the purpose of investigating women’s access to growth capital. Following a series of academic articles, and numerous presentations, the first Diana International Conference was held in Stockholm, Sweden. At this convening, 20 scholars from 13 countries shared their knowledge of women’s entrepreneurship, venture creation and growth, culminating in the first volume of the Diana Book Series. Since then, 14 international conferences have been held, resulting in 10 special issues of top academic journals and 11 books. More than 600 scholars have attended or participated in Diana conferences or publications.

Research limitations/implications

Contributions from the Diana International Conferences’ special issues of journals and books have advanced theory across topics, levels, geographies and methods. Articles emerging from Diana scholars are some of the top contributions about women’s entrepreneurship and gender to the field of entrepreneurship. Future research directions are included.

Practical implications

This analysis demonstrates the success of a unique woman-focused collaborative research initiative and identifies key success factors, suggesting how these might be expanded in the future.

Social implications

To date, more than 600 scholars have participated in the Diana International Conferences or publications. Diana is the only community dedicated to rigorous and relevant research about gender and women’s entrepreneurship. Going forward, efforts to expand work on education for women’s entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurship faculty and careers, and women entrepreneurs, gender and policy will take place to extend this legacy.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in that it is the first to show the substantial legacy and impact of the Diana project since its inception in 1999. Further, it demonstrates how a feminist approach to entrepreneurial principles can yield insights about this unique research initiative and collaborative organization.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Angela W. Peters, Verlie A. Tisdale and Derrick J. Swinton

Findings within the last decade reveal a core set of activities that have been correlated to student success metrics such as persistence, retention, and graduation (Kuh, 2008)…

Abstract

Findings within the last decade reveal a core set of activities that have been correlated to student success metrics such as persistence, retention, and graduation (Kuh, 2008). These research-based activities are called high-impact practices (HIPs). Students who have participated in HIPs have shown gains in retention, in persistence, intellectually and in an overall positive college experience. This chapter provides an overview of 10 HIPs and their importance and benefits to underserved students, that is, first-generation college students, low-income college students, and underrepresented students of color such as African American, Latino/a, and Native American. Findings within the chapter also recognize how HIPs can be extremely beneficial for historically Black colleges and universities to build capacity and to ensure student success, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

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