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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis (IJOA) would not exist without the hard work and dedication of its founder and editor for twelve years, Dr. M. Afzalur…
The International Journal of Organizational Analysis (IJOA) would not exist without the hard work and dedication of its founder and editor for twelve years, Dr. M. Afzalur Rahim. The journal is the result of the hard work and dedication of Dr. Rahim. Dr. Rahim is responsible for its development and growth as an outlet for quality articles in a wide range of areas including organizational theory, strategic management, organizational behavior, and human resource management. Dr. Rahim has worked very hard to make the title of this journal be reflected in the articles published in IJOA. Thanks to Dr. Rahim's hard work, many articles in IJOA are published by authors outside of the USA and deal with international samples.
This study tested a structural equations model of the five French and Raven bases of supervisory power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent), styles of…
This study tested a structural equations model of the five French and Raven bases of supervisory power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent), styles of handling conflict with supervisor (problem solving and bargaining), and job performance. Employees (N = 1,116) completed questionnaires on power and conflict styles, and their job performance was evaluated by their respective supervisors (N = 398). The data were aggregated for the subordinates associated with a given manager (N = 398) to make sure that independent observation assumption is not violated. The LISREL 8 analysis of data indicates that legitimate power influenced referent power positively and coercive power negatively, and reward and legitimate powers positively influenced expert power, which in turn, positively influenced referent power. Referent power, in turn, positively influenced problem solving (i.e., using more integrating and less avoiding styles) and negatively influenced bargaining (i.e., using more dominating and less obliging styles) conflict‐management styles, and finally, problem solving style, but not bargaining style, positively influenced job performance.
The management of organizational conflict involves the diagnosis of and intervention in affective and substantive conflicts at the interpersonal, intragroup, and…
The management of organizational conflict involves the diagnosis of and intervention in affective and substantive conflicts at the interpersonal, intragroup, and intergroup levels and the styles (strategies) used to handle these conflicts. A diagnosis should indicate whether there is need for an intervention and the type of intervention needed. In general, an intervention is designed (a) to attain and maintain a moderate amount of substantive conflict in nonroutine tasks at various levels, (b) to reduce affective conflict at all levels, and (c) to enable the organizational members to select and use the appropriate styles of handling conflict so that various situations can be effectively dealt with. Organizational learning and effectiveness can be enhanced through an appropriate diagnosis of and process and structural interventions in conflict.
This study investigated the relationships of emotional intelligence—empathy and social skills—of supervisors to the effectiveness of their leader role. Questionnaire data…
This study investigated the relationships of emotional intelligence—empathy and social skills—of supervisors to the effectiveness of their leader role. Questionnaire data on emotional intelligence were collected in four countries (U.S., Greece, China, and Bangladesh, N = 1,184 dyads) from employed MBA students (observers), but the data on the effectiveness of leader role were collected from the colleagues of MBA students who had the same supervisor. Responses from each dyad were matched. Data analysis showed that empathy was a mediator of the relationship between social skills and the effectiveness of leader role in the U.S., Greece, and Bangladesh, but not in China. Implications for management, directions for future research, and limitations of the study are discussed.
This study explored the relationships of the stages of moral development [pre‐conventional (i.e., low stage), conventionals (ie., middle stage), and post‐conventionals…
This study explored the relationships of the stages of moral development [pre‐conventional (i.e., low stage), conventionals (ie., middle stage), and post‐conventionals (i.e., high stage)] to the styles of handling interpersonal conflict [integrating (i.e., problem solving), obliging (i.e., accommodating), dominating (i.e., competing), avoiding, and compromising] in organizations. A field study with a collegiate sample of employed business students (N = 443) shows that the post‐conventionals used more integrating and less dominating and avoiding styles than conventionals. The conventionals used more integrating and less dominating and avoiding styles than pre‐conventionals. The conventionals used more compromising style than post‐conventionals, but post‐conventionals used more compromising style than pre‐conventionals. There were no differences in obliging style across the three stages of moral development. Implications of the study for management, directions for future research, and limitations were discussed.
In a study consisting of 202 currently‐employed undergraduate students, we examined relationships between employees' perceptions of organizational justice and the styles…
In a study consisting of 202 currently‐employed undergraduate students, we examined relationships between employees' perceptions of organizational justice and the styles they use for managing conflict with their supervisors. Regression analysis of questionnaire data indicated that distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were generally positively related to the use of more cooperative conflict management styles (i.e., integrating, obliging, and compromising). Two 2‐way interaction effects were observed as well, such that higher interactional justice was related to greater use of the integrating style primarily when distributive justice was low and procedural justice was high. Additionally, distributive justice was positively related to use of the avoiding style. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the…
This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the U.S. (n = 459) and S. Korean (n = 625) managers. Results indicate that the factor structure of the power bases in the S. Korean sample was remarkably similar to those found in the U.S. sample; but whereas the U.S. managers reported relatively more position than personal power base, S. Korean managers reported relatively more personal than position power base. Similarities in the relationships of coercive, legitimate, and referent power bases to compliance, satisfaction, and dissimilarities in the relationships of expert and reward power bases to the criterion variables in the two samples are noted.
M. Afzalur Rahim, Clement Psenicka, Panagiotis Polychroniou, Jing‐Hua Zhao, Chun‐Sheng Yu, Kawai Anita Chan, Kwok Wai Yee Susana, Maria G. Alves, Chang‐Won Lee, Sahidur Ralunan, Shameema Ferdausy and Rene van Wyk
The study investigated the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self‐awareness, self‐regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills of…
The study investigated the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self‐awareness, self‐regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills of supervisors to subordinates' strategies of handling conflict: problem solving and bargaining. Data (N = 1,395) for this study were collected with questionnaires from MBA students in seven countries (U.S., Greece, China, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Macau, South Africa, and Portugal). Psychometric properties of the measures were tested and improved with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of indicator and internal consistency reliabilities, and the hypotheses were tested with a structural equations model for each country. Results in the U.S. and in the combined sample provided support for the model which suggests that self‐awareness is positively associated with self‐regulation, empathy, and social skills; self regulation is positively associated with empathy and social skills; empathy and social skills are positively associated with motivation; which in turn, is positively associated with problem solving strategy and negatively associated with bargaining strategy. Differences among countries in these relationships are noted and implications for organizations discussed.
Previous studies examining the relationship between gender and conflict-management strategies have generally reported weak or inconsistent results. This paper aims to…
Previous studies examining the relationship between gender and conflict-management strategies have generally reported weak or inconsistent results. This paper aims to study extends past research by examining the main and interactive effects of gender on conflict-management strategies over time. The authors propose that conflict-management strategies commonly employed in the workplace are impacted by worker gender as predicted by face negotiation theory and vary over time based on the “generation” of the worker.
To test the study hypotheses, a field study was conducted to assess main and interactive effects of gender and generation on the five strategies for conflict management: Integrating, obliging, dominating, avoiding and compromising. Questionnaire data were collected over four decades (1980s-2010s) from employed students (N = 6,613). Data analysis was performed using a multivariate analysis of covariance.
The results suggest female employees consistently use more noncompeting strategies (integrating, obliging, avoiding and compromising) than male employees and male employees consistently use more competing strategy (dominating) than female employees. All the main and interaction effects were significant.
While this study involved primarily students in the USA studying management at two major public universities, there may be implications for a more global population of workers. However, the results support the notion advanced by face negotiation theory that men will generally seek to save face while women will generally avoid conflict in consideration of others.
This study demonstrates that workers employ different conflict-management strategies over time and the use of certain strategies varies by gender. An implication of this study is the need to regularly reassess selection, training and evaluation processes for managers. In addition, supervisors should encourage employees to enhance the effective use of cooperative (integrating, obliging and compromising) strategies and focus on specific situations when uncooperative strategies (dominating and avoiding) may be needed.
By using face negotiation theory as the organizing framework to examine changes in conflict-management strategies over time, this study contributes in a substantial way to the understanding of how gender and generation interact to influence the selection and use of conflict-management strategies in the workplace.
The five papers in this issue discuss and synthesize the diverse literature on the construct of organizational learning, characteristics of learning organizations, the relationship between individual and organizational learning, the diffusion process of knowledge from the individual to the collective, the existant contributions of organization development (OD) to developing learning organizations, and the changes that are implied in OD theory and practice by the learning organizations.