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This chapter presents information regarding the significance of the Pacific Alliance in the commercial development in Mexico. Mexico’s integration with the countries of…
This chapter presents information regarding the significance of the Pacific Alliance in the commercial development in Mexico. Mexico’s integration with the countries of the Pacific Alliance (Peru, Colombia, and Chile) is highlighted through statistical analysis of the composition of Mexico’s exports, the future of the country’s exports, and the balance of trade. Some of these challenges are the growth and diversification of exports, internationalization of small business enterprises, and reduction of the balance of trade deficit with respect to some of its main export products. Results showed that Mexico’s three Latin American commercial partners together represented the third-highest destination for its exports, where Mexico had a favorable balance of trade, which suggests that a further opening of these countries’ economies would bring benefits to Mexican economy.
The decrease of Mexican exports since 2012 to countries such as Chile and Colombia are symptoms that the Pacific Alliance free trade agreement needs more support in order to represent an opportunity to increase export diversification, since most of the Mexico-exported goods go to the United States. This can bring economic and political risks because of the overreliance on one trading partner.
The results also showed that most of Mexico’s exports to the Pacific Alliance country members are hi-tech products. The principal exports in terms of sales come from the telecommunications industry, transportation industry, and the home appliance industry. The rest of the main products exported come from medium- or low-technology industries, with high levels of local added value.
The aim of this research is to analyse the literature on drinking water management in Mexico City and Singapore, considering water supply, institutional organisation and…
The aim of this research is to analyse the literature on drinking water management in Mexico City and Singapore, considering water supply, institutional organisation and management, and rates so as to propose recommendations for improvement in the water management of the Mexico City.
The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) methodology is used to review the literature on drinking water management in Mexico City and Singapore in time periods from 1325 to 2021 and from 1819 to 2021, respectively, emphasising the contemporary part. The information search was realised through different prestigious databases and official documents from the governments of Mexico and Singapore, as well as international organisations. After analysing, 40 documents were included to discuss the results.
There is a contrast between water management in Singapore and Mexico City because Singapore has strong institutions coordinated with each other along with the private and social sectors and has efficient fundraising and infrastructure investment systems. Although they are cities that developed in different circumstances, a comparison between them allowed to glimpse some aspects that may be useful to replicate in Mexico City.
This research is novel because there is no comparative analysis like the one presented in the literature, so it is suggested to continue delving into the topics covered in future research to have more elements that allow improving drinking water management in Mexico City.
Mexico-China trade and investment links.
Mexico, with its long US border and relatively low wages, is well-placed to take advantage of this trend, and is doing so to some extent, but several factors are weighing…
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise. Suddenly, people, as well as organizations, needed to adapt to a new reality of work from home…
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise. Suddenly, people, as well as organizations, needed to adapt to a new reality of work from home, work–life balance, e-leadership, extreme hygiene, and social distancing. Companies had to find new ways to operate, and areas such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) had to react to face the stakeholders' needs. In addition, developing countries had been in a fragile position, as this crisis has deteriorated already weak economic, political, and social conditions. In Mexico, CSR has traditionally assisted on urgent matters such as poverty, hunger, education, work, and other issues that have also been considered in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The aim of this chapter is to describe and analyze CSR response to the COVID-19 crisis of large foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) in Mexico, especially in relation to the SDG agenda. First, we provide a general background of the initial condition, that is, Mexico's situation when the pandemic arose, as well as common attributes of prepandemic CSR in Mexico. Then, we examine the government's response to the crisis. Afterward, we observe and analyze large foreign MNCs' CSR disclosed activities to face the emergency. Main findings imply that companies switched their usual CSR attention from socioeconomical, institutional, and sustainability goals to primary needs. Lastly, we make recommendations on the future of CSR and the SDG in the so-called “new normal.”
This paper aims to expose the economic and political relations of power disguised in the concept of financial risk as institutionalized in post-crisis economic policies…
This paper aims to expose the economic and political relations of power disguised in the concept of financial risk as institutionalized in post-crisis economic policies and practices. We do so by examining, from a historical materialist approach, the actors and social struggles implicated in the aftermath of crisis in Mexico and Turkey. We argue that Mexican and Turkish state authorities have targeted workers so that they may disproportionately bear the costs of financial uncertainty and recurrent crises as workers, taxpayers, and debtors in the aftermath of the 2008–2009 crisis. We emphasize, though, that there are important institutional mediations and case study specificities. Mexico’s reforms that target labor as one of the main bearers of financial risk have been locked into legislation and constitutional changes. Turkey’s policies have been implemented in a more ad-hoc manner. In both cases under contemporary capitalism, we see risk as not confined to national borders but as also flowing through the world market. We further argue that the World Bank Report 2014 Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risk for Development emerges out of and reflects such real world responses to crisis that have been predominantly shaped by advocates of neoliberalism, to the benefit of capital. As an expression internal to global capitalism, the World Bank Report functions to legitimize the exploitative content of contemporary financial risk management policy prescriptions. In response, democratized financial alternatives that privilege the needs of workers and the poor are required.
In this chapter, the authors examine the turnover of employees in Latin America, with a particular focus on Mexico. Employee turnover is important in Latin America and in…
In this chapter, the authors examine the turnover of employees in Latin America, with a particular focus on Mexico. Employee turnover is important in Latin America and in Mexico, as it is in many other places, because the cost of labor typically accounts for 70% of a firm’s operating cost. When employees leave, it requires that the employer replaces the workers through human resource management processes that include recruiting, selection, orientation, and training. These costs are a significant expense to firms that they could avoid if turnover was lower. The authors identify cultural, economic, legal, and other factors that could influence employee turnover. The authors also summarize many managerial practices that can help employers to effectively manage employee turnover. Finally, the authors provide insights for future research on employee turnover in this important region of the world.
This paper aims at a better understanding of contemporary women’s relationship paths and their reasoning behind them. Qualitative interviews with 48 rural and urban women…
This paper aims at a better understanding of contemporary women’s relationship paths and their reasoning behind them. Qualitative interviews with 48 rural and urban women from Western Mexico were conducted and analyzed using a thematic approach and data discussed from a feminist, gender approach and late modernity approach. Findings reveal civil and religious marriages were the paths two-third of women followed to start a family and that women living in permanent and alternating cohabitation did not seek to marry. Women held ambivalent views on marital life and poorer and less-educated women, particularly urban participants, had no choice but to marry. Findings on reasoning reveal a more complex and diverse reality than previous sociodemographic studies have portrayed, where pragmatism and social order were the main causes for marrying and cohabitation. Narratives show premarital sex and the symbolism of marriage and family are changing. A comparative approach between contexts of study, age groups, civil status, and social strata enriched and strengthened the discussion of the findings. The results were contrasted with existing Mexican literature from different fields. A larger qualitative study is needed to broaden the scope of the findings made by this study, whilst large-scale studies should consider either the use of mixed approaches or the inclusion of items that allow them to identify the elements of social and cultural change. The study could help to demystify women’s attitudes toward marriage, sex, and love; a field currently sprinkled with western romantic love values and gender-driven idealizations. This paper might be of interest for social demographers, anthropologists, sociologists, and historians conducting research on these themes from feminist and gender perspectives.