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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ali Sohaib, Laurence Broadbent, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Lyndon Neal Smith and Melvyn Lionel Smith

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little…

Abstract

Purpose

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little research available regarding spectral BRDF measurements of human skin. This study aims to investigate the variation in human skin reflectance using a new fibre optic-based spectral-BRDF measurement device.

Design/methodology/approach

Design of this system mainly involves use of multiple fibre optics to illuminate and detect light reflected from a sample, whereas a hemispherical dome was 3D printed to mount the fibres at various slant/tilt angles. To investigate the spectral differences in BRDF of human skin, 3 narrowband filters in the visible spectrum were used, whereas measurements were taken from the back of the hand for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Findings

The experiments demonstrate that the BRDF of human skin varies with wavelengths in the visible spectrum and it is also different for Caucasian and Asian skin types. Both skin types exhibit off-specular reflection with increase in angle of incidence and show less variation with respect to viewing angles when the angle of incidence is normal to the surface.

Research implications

A database of spectral BRDF measurements of human skin will help not only in creating realistic skin renderings but also in development of novel skin reflectance models for biomedical and machine vision applications. The measurements would also provide means to validate the predictions from existing light transport/spectral simulation models for human skin and will ultimately help in the accurate diagnosis and simulation of various skin disorders.

Originality/value

The proposed system provides fast scatter measurements by utilising multiple fibres to detect light simultaneously at different angles while also allowing easy switching between incident light directions. Due to its flexible design and contact-based measurements, the device is independent of errors due to sample movements and does not require any image registration. Also, measurements taken from the device show that the BRDF of skin varies significantly in the visible spectrum and it is different for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Wenhao Zhang, Melvyn Lionel Smith, Lyndon Neal Smith and Abdul Rehman Farooq

This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The design of the algorithm aims at excellent accuracy, robustness and real-time performance for use in real-world applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A modular approach has been designed that makes use of isophote and gradient features to estimate eye centre locations. This approach embraces two main modalities that progressively reduce global facial features to local levels for more precise inspections. A novel selective oriented gradient (SOG) filter has been specifically designed to remove strong gradients from eyebrows, eye corners and self-shadows, which sabotage most eye centre localisation methods. The proposed algorithm, tested on the BioID database, has shown superior accuracy.

Findings

The eye centre localisation algorithm has been compared with 11 other methods on the BioID database and six other methods on the GI4E database. The proposed algorithm has outperformed all the other algorithms in comparison in terms of localisation accuracy while exhibiting excellent real-time performance. This method is also inherently robust against head poses, partial eye occlusions and shadows.

Originality/value

The eye centre localisation method uses two mutually complementary modalities as a novel, fast, accurate and robust approach. In addition, other than assisting eye centre localisation, the SOG filter is able to resolve general tasks regarding the detection of curved shapes. From an applied point of view, the proposed method has great potentials in benefiting a wide range of real-world human-computer interaction (HCI) applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Jiuai Sun, Xiaoping Xu, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Lyndon Neal Smith and Melvyn Lionel Smith

This paper aims to review state of the art of techniques for dimensioning chronic wounds, and validate the possibilities of employing a new proposed optical imaging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review state of the art of techniques for dimensioning chronic wounds, and validate the possibilities of employing a new proposed optical imaging approach for general task of wound assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

Current techniques used for quantifying wound surface are reviewed and evaluated from various perspectives to exam their usability in wound care clinical settings. A photometric stereo (PS) approach will be identified and verified to work as an alternative solution to better satisfy practical requirements on quantifying the dimension of real and mocked wounds.

Findings

Both contact and contactless approaches provide some useful functions for wound management; however, new imaging modalities are still required for achieving good portability, affordability and applicability in assisting decision-making in clinical settings. The PS approach can work as a potential solution to provide these functionalities as well as dense geometrical and color texture information of measured areas. The experiments demonstrate that the new approach is able to conveniently produce comparable results to those from latest stereo vision-based techniques.

Research limitations/implications

This work proposed and initially verified the potential of PS technique for the task of wound measurement. Substantial improvements on the prototype and more clinical trials are still required to validate the new technique before it is accepted as a tool for practical wound measurement.

Originality/value

This new PS approach has good potential to reliably measure the dimension of wounds as well as recover their color texture which could contain additional valuable information for predicting a healing procedure for those wound occurring deeper underneath the skin surface.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Sandra C. Buttigieg, Emanuela-Anna Azzopardi and Vincent Cassar

Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various…

Abstract

Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various disciplines, and the inherent limitations of human performance make it critically important for these departments to provide patient-safe and friendly working environments that are open to learning and participative safety. Obstetric care involves stressful work, and health care professionals are prone to develop burnout, this being associated with unsafe practices and lower probability for reporting safety concerns. This study aims to test the mediating role of burnout in the relationship of patient-safe and friendly working environment with unsafe performance. The full population of professionals working in an obstetrics department in Malta was invited to participate in a cross-sectional study, with 73.6% (n = 184) of its members responding. The research tool was adapted from the Sexton et al.’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire – Labor and Delivery version and surveyed participants on their working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe performance. Analysis was done using Structural Equation Modeling. Results supported the relationship between the lack of a perceived patient-safe and friendly working environment and unsafe performance that is mediated by burnout. Creating a working environment that ensures patient safety practices, that allows communication, and is open to learning may protect employees from burnout. In so doing, they are more likely to perceive that they are practicing safely. This study contributes to patient safety literature by relating working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe practice with the intention of raising awareness of health managers’ roles in ensuring optimal clinical working environment for health care employees.

Details

Structural Approaches to Address Issues in Patient Safety
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-085-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Barrie O. Pettman and Richard Dobbins

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Abstract

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Lisa Johnson

What is it about academia anyway? We profess to hate it, spend endless amounts of time complaining about it, and yet we in academia will do practically anything to stay…

Abstract

What is it about academia anyway? We profess to hate it, spend endless amounts of time complaining about it, and yet we in academia will do practically anything to stay. The pay may be low, job security elusive, and in the end, it's not the glamorous work we envisioned it would be. Yet, it still holds fascination and interest for us. This is an article about American academic fiction. By academic fiction, I mean novels whosemain characters are professors, college students, and those individuals associated with academia. These works reveal many truths about the higher education experience not readily available elsewhere. We learn about ourselves and the university community in which we work.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1899

What proof have the public, independent of the assertions of the makers, that all the firms whose products are sold indifferently by the shopkeepers use only the best…

Abstract

What proof have the public, independent of the assertions of the makers, that all the firms whose products are sold indifferently by the shopkeepers use only the best materials; or, indeed, that a large number of the articles sold are not mixtures more or less objectionable or fraudulent ? This, in effect, is the question put by a writer in a West of England newspaper, and it might be used as a text upon which to write a lengthy homily on the adulteration question and on the astonishing gullibility of the public. As a matter of fact the only evidence of the character and quality of food and other products, in regard to which there is no independent guarantee, is that which is afforded by the standing of the makers, and to some extent of the firms which offer them for sale. And this evidence cannot, under any circumstances, be looked upon as constituting proof. The startling allegations so commonly put forward by advertisers with respect to their wares, while they may be ineffective in so far as thinking people are concerned, must nevertheless be found pecuniarily advantageous since the expense involved in placing them under the eyes of the public would otherwise hardly be incurred. Many of these advertised allegations are, of course, entirely unjustifiable, or are incapable of proof. It may be hoped that the lavish manner in which they are set out, and their very extravagance, may, in time, result in producing a general effect not contemplated by the advertisers. In the meantime it cannot be too often pointed out that proof, such as that which is required for the satisfaction of the retailer and for the protection of the public, can only be obtained by the exercise of an independent control, and, in certain cases, by the maintenance of efficient independent inspection in addition, so that a guarantee of a character entirely different to that which may be offered, even by a firm of the highest eminence, may be supplied.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1911

So far as the various British Food and Drugs Acts are concerned, the meaning of “sophistication” or “adulteration,” which includes “substitution,” is now very wide.

Abstract

So far as the various British Food and Drugs Acts are concerned, the meaning of “sophistication” or “adulteration,” which includes “substitution,” is now very wide.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Abstract

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12024-615-1

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