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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Geoff Ryan, Lyle M. Spencer and Urs Bernhard

The purpose of this paper is to report data empirically linking competencies of individual leaders to business profitability and demonstrate that competencies are…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report data empirically linking competencies of individual leaders to business profitability and demonstrate that competencies are cross‐culturally valid.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants in the initial competency study were 15 business unit managers identified as high performing. Data were collected using Critical Incident Interviews that were systematically coded using thematic analysis to identify the presence of competencies. Competencies identified were then adapted into a behaviourally‐based questionnaire used in a follow‐up validation study. Participants in the validation study (n=70) were managers from North America and two European countries who were participants in a management development program. Boss ratings of competencies were then correlated with business unit profitability.

Findings

A set of competencies was identified as predictive of unit profit growth in managers in both North America and the European Union. Subsequent regression analysis showed that 17 per cent of the variance in business unit profitability could be accounted for by four competencies, specifically team leadership, developing others, achievement orientation, and impact and influence. Cross‐cultural validity was demonstrated to the degree that similar competencies predicted performance in both North America and the European Union as evidenced by the correlation between boss rating of subordinate competencies and profit growth.

Research limitations/implications

The initial study using Critical Incident Interviews was conducted with a small sample size and did not employ a comparison group of average performers.

Practical implications

Initial competency research using empirical methods should be used to help focus competency models used for selection, feedback, training, and performance management.

Originality/value

The study is one of the few published studies that link competencies to business unit profitability. The paper demonstrates that competencies have a degree of cross‐cultural validity.

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Geoff Ryan, Robert J. Emmerling and Lyle M. Spencer

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive…

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2638

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive competencies in the workplace. Second, using data from two different European samples, to demonstrate the methods for validating competency models for applied use. Third, to discuss the impact of role demands and culture on the manifestation of competencies most predictive of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic design used in both studies is to compare data from outstanding performers against data from typical or average performers in order to determine competencies which predict performance. The data presented here are based on operant assessment of competencies using critical incident interviews, which are then systematically coded using thematic analysis to yield behavioural evidence of specific competencies.

Findings

The results indicate that, while some competencies such as achievement orientation and team leadership are consistently linked to performance in both studies, the correlation of other specific competencies with performance varies among the samples. Moreover, the relative importance of specific competencies in terms of the amount of variance in performance explained also varies across the two samples.

Research limitations/implications

The criterion measures available, i.e. client ratings of performance, did not provide the continuous objective performance data that are generally considered preferable so as to provide a clearer picture of the value added by superior performance. A further limitation was that there was no opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the various initiatives which were put in place to improve managers' competencies after their initial assessment.

Originality/value

This is one of the few articles that explore the validity of competencies within the European Union across different organizations using a common competency framework and methodology. Both studies were originally initiated as applied consulting projects and the findings of the research applied to human resource practices within each organization. Although competencies are ubiquitous in today's global workplace, the number of published studies with data to support the validity of competency‐modelling techniques has been limited. The current research adds to the growing literature in this area and adds to one's confidence in the ability of emotional, social and cognitive competencies to predict performance in a variety of settings and cultures.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Teams are pervasive. According to a recent survey, 68 percent of Fortune 1,000 companies were using self‐managed work teams in one form or another in 1994. But not…

Abstract

Teams are pervasive. According to a recent survey, 68 percent of Fortune 1,000 companies were using self‐managed work teams in one form or another in 1994. But not everyone sees teams as effective. Here are some common problems:

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Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Hans Pruijt

BPR can be deconstructed into four different identities. In the first place it is a product of the management fad industry. In the second place it is part of a…

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2715

Abstract

BPR can be deconstructed into four different identities. In the first place it is a product of the management fad industry. In the second place it is part of a neo‐Taylorist movement because of the following characteristics: a top‐down streamlining of operations, unproblematic acceptance of typical Taylorist solutions and the prevalence of assertions that the outcome for workers is an upgraded work content. In the third place BPR is a euphemism for downsizing. Downsizing is much more at the core of BPR than some of its proponents would have it. Finally, BPR functions as a non‐normative, descriptive label for process oriented change. The paper seeks to show how the different identities of BPR interact and get into one another’s way.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Ieva Martinkenaite

The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the current body of research on inter‐organizational knowledge transfer, indicating some of its limitations…

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4630

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the current body of research on inter‐organizational knowledge transfer, indicating some of its limitations and openings for future studies. It maps research in an integrative framework of knowledge‐specific, organizational and network‐level antecedents and performance outcomes of transfer. When assuming that transfer of knowledge does not by itself influence organizational performance, this study gives special attention to a mediating role of knowledge acquisition in relationship between antecedents and performance outcomes of transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

In this conceptual paper the author consolidates, annotates and critiques existing research on antecedents and consequences of inter‐firm knowledge transfer. The author reveals limitations of the current body of literature and provides directions for future research.

Findings

This paper points to the underestimated role of knowledge acquisition in conceptual models of inter‐firm knowledge transfer. The author suggests that the extent, type and nature of “new knowledge learned” mediate the relationship between various antecedents of transfer and financial, product/market and strategic performance of firms. Related to this, the study calls future research to analyze knowledge transfer as a two‐stage process that involves acquisition of knowledge and its exploitation.

Originality/value

Although research on inter‐organizational knowledge transfer is burgeoning, yet our understanding of its antecedents and consequences remains unclear. As a first step to filling this gap, this study provides a comprehensive literature review, reveals its limitations and suggests meaningful directions for further research. It points to high explanatory value of theoretical frameworks that examine linkages between antecedents of transfer, learning outcomes and firm performance results.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Binh T.T. Vuong, Thang V. Nguyen and Ngoc T. Phan

Drawing from institutional theory and organizational learning perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social norms of corruption in home countries and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from institutional theory and organizational learning perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social norms of corruption in home countries and those in host localities influence firm bribery behavior. It also investigates factors that moderate the influence of these norms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on survey data of foreign invested firms (FIFs) in Vietnam, conducted by the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry between 2010 and 2018 along with Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index. The authors run ordinary least squares regressions to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The study provides evidence that social norms of corruption in both home countries and host localities influence firms’ bribery behavior, but their effects are moderated by different sets of factors. Specifically, the use of local leadership augments the impact of the host province’s corruption norms on the firm’s bribe payments. By contrast, the relationship between the home country’s corruption norms and a FIF’s bribe payment is weaker if local leadership is used, and stronger if the FIF’s home country belongs to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Research limitations/implications

Repeated cross-sectional data do not allow us to genuinely keep track of the changing roles of home country and host province corruption norms over time. In addition, the use of perception measures for corruption norms is subject to potential biases.

Practical implications

As the hiring of local executives weakens the impact of the home country’s norms which are embedded in the MNCs’ general practices, a stronger learning measure and regular review of the headquarters’ policies and practices is needed to ensure the overseas branch’s compliance. For policymakers, it is critical to recognize that local corruption plays a role in shaping FIFs’ bribery behavior.

Originality/value

While the effect of social norms of corruption on firm bribery behavior has been recognized, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the learning processes FIFs may take to make sense of and cope with these norms, and also the first one to specify factors that moderate the influence of these norms.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1967

“It is generally accepted that the food industry must be scientifically based to cope with the problems, particularly of public health, which arise as new processes of…

Abstract

“It is generally accepted that the food industry must be scientifically based to cope with the problems, particularly of public health, which arise as new processes of growing, manufacturing, packaging and preserving food depart even further from traditional ways.”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1989

John Fernie

Distribution has been a major element of retailers′ marketingstrategy in recent years as companies strive to control costs but at thesame time seek competitive advantage…

Abstract

Distribution has been a major element of retailers′ marketing strategy in recent years as companies strive to control costs but at the same time seek competitive advantage through improving service to stores and gaining greater control of stock in the supply chain. In an interview survey of distribution directors from major multiple groups, all companies were reviewing their distribution strategy and many had made major changes to their distribution system. Centralisation of stock in strategically located RDCs and the use of third party contractors were main features of retail companies′ strategy. Contractors were much more aggressive in marketing their services to retailers than hitherto. This is partly related to the competitive and turbulent nature of the industry. In a survey of marketing directors/managers of distribution companies, it was clear that firms were trying to raise their profile in the market as they “went public” and/or because they were moving into new industry sectors away from their “core” specialist areas.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2018

Martin Lauzier, Jacques Barrette, Sandra Kenny and Louise Lemyre

This paper aims to develop a short form of the Inventory of Organizational Learning Facilitators (IOLF) by using the same factors as the long form to test the equivalence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a short form of the Inventory of Organizational Learning Facilitators (IOLF) by using the same factors as the long form to test the equivalence between two language versions (English and French) and to explore executives’ attitudes toward organizational learning (OL).

Design/methodology/approach

The structure of the long-form IOLF is based on five factors found in previous work: knowledge acquisition and transformation; OL culture; learning-focused leadership; OL support; and strategic management of new knowledge and learning. Two surveys of Canadian Federal Government executives assessed their perception of OL facilitators, organizational commitment, cynicism and intention to leave the organization. Correlational pattern analysis, conducted after confirmatory factor analyses, assessed the equivalence of the two language versions.

Findings

The short-form IOLF replicated the factor structure of previous work and demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency. Correlations showed equivalence between and across languages. Significant correlations with outcome variables, albeit in a cross-sectional design, supported predictive validity.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptually valid instrument can be adapted to English- and French-speaking populations. It can test hypotheses about the relationship between OL facilitators and individual, collective and organizational outcomes. The findings stem from self-report data in a cross-sectional design and require further research.

Practical implications

The short-form IOLF can quickly identify areas for improvement and monitor the evolution of an organization’s learning abilities.

Originality/value

This quick, efficient tool assesses OL context and can indicate factors likely to influence OL. This study offers empirically driven insights into conditions that influence executives’ attitudes.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1954

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Abstract

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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