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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Jean Boisvert and Nicholas Jeremy Ashill

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which gender impacts the evaluation of vertical line extensions of luxury brands in a cross-national context. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which gender impacts the evaluation of vertical line extensions of luxury brands in a cross-national context. The topic of brand/line extensions has been investigated in the mainstream branding literature. On the other hand, the topic has received less attention in the luxury literature. At the same time, while research has examined brand/line extensions from an international perspective, the impact of gender on consumer purchase intentions of luxury downward line extensions in different countries has remained unexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an ANOVA design (2 extension types × 2 genders × 2 countries). The independent variables were ordered as follows: gender (male/female), vertical line extensions (upscale/downward) and country of living (France/USA). The purchase intention of the extension was chosen as the dependent variable.

Findings

The study results show that key differences exist between men and women regarding vertical luxury line extensions. For instance, women in both countries rate a new downward line extension of a luxury brand more positively than men. In contrast, although women evaluate a new upscale line extension of a luxury brand similarly to men in France, women are more positive than men in the USA. Also, US men rate an upscale extension less positively than their French counterparts. Finally, women in both countries rate luxury downward extensions more positively than men.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of luxury brand management by examining how gender types process and respond to upscale and downward luxury line extensions versus purchase intentions in two different countries. This paper is unique as gender types are not often compared in previous research while fundamental distinctions exist, leading to significant differences. Practically, this study also provides key insights for marketing strategy development and adjustment for luxury manufacturers in terms of their target market, more specifically men versus women.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Jose Figueiredo and Vasco Eiriz

This article aims to understand the influences surrounding the consumption of fragrances, especially if these products fit as a brand extension of luxury brands. More…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to understand the influences surrounding the consumption of fragrances, especially if these products fit as a brand extension of luxury brands. More specifically, it aims at identifying the main reasons behind the process of buying fragrances and the main features associated with the consumption of fragrances.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts a qualitative approach in the form of 15 in-depth interviews with consumers of fragrances, seeking to assess attitudes and influences in the consumption of fragrances as a brand extension of luxury brands.

Findings

This research shows that the emotional use of fragrances as a luxury product is much more important than their functionality, the relationship between the studied consumers and fragrances depends on the occasion of consumption (season of the year; day or night) and the aroma and the durability of the aroma is the main decision criterion for the purchase of fragrances. Respondents have also mentioned comfort, elegance and sophistication as attributes to choose a fragrance as a luxury product.

Originality/value

This article adds to the current knowledge on the topics of luxury brand management and buying behaviour by providing a better understanding of attitudes and influences towards the use of fragrances. This research recognizes the importance of a brand extension strategy for luxury brands, especially in the case of fragrances.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Jean Boisvert and Nicholas J. Ashill

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the impact of branding strategies on horizontal and downward line extensions of French luxury brands in a cross-national…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the impact of branding strategies on horizontal and downward line extensions of French luxury brands in a cross-national context (France vs USA).

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a two line extensions (horizontal/downward) × three branding strategies (direct brand/sub-brand/standalone brand) x two country (France/USA) between-subjects ANOVA design.

Findings

The study shows that the subtyping effect created by a sub-branded luxury downward line extension tends to be rated similarly to a direct branded extension which oppose previous beliefs put forward in non-luxury settings. In contrast, a new independent/standalone extension fully uses the subtyping effect which helps attenuate this risk related to luxury downward stretches. The study also found that the effect of gender in cross-national settings must always be taken into consideration as significant variations occur in the process.

Research limitations/implications

The study covers two countries but should be replicated in other cross-national contexts.

Practical implications

This study helps marketing managers of luxury brands make a better decision when it comes to launching vertical line extensions (upscale/downward) by carefully using types of branding strategies and relevant communications whether women and/or men are targeted in cross-national contexts.

Originality/value

This study breaks new ground in the international luxury literature by providing key theoretical and managerial insights in terms of launching new downward line extensions with the proper use of branding strategies when targeting specific genders.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2018

Irem Eren-Erdogmus, Ilker Akgun and Esin Arda

In recent years, brand extension has become a popular and fundamental strategy of most luxury brands. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the factors that affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, brand extension has become a popular and fundamental strategy of most luxury brands. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the factors that affect the success of luxury brand extensions by incorporating luxury brand value perceptions, parent brand attitude, fit perceptions and consumers’ product category involvement and innovativeness in a holistic model. The model is tested for two hypothetical luxury brand extensions types: complement and transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) technique to identify the variables that combine to produce a positive or a negative attitude towards luxury brand extensions. The research was conducted on 555 young women professionals (254 for brand extension Type 1 – complement (umbrella); and 301 for brand extension type – transfer (seating furniture), respectively).

Findings

The results show that perceived fit between the parent brand and extension is a necessary condition for a positive evaluation of both extension types. Other than perceived fit, hedonic and symbolic values and consumer involvement are proven to be necessary antecedent conditions for the evaluation of transfer extensions. This study also proposes several configurations for forming a positive attitude towards each brand extension type and makes implications for luxury managers and further research.

Originality/value

The results of the research are significant in several ways. First, this study adds to the extant literature by exploring a somehow neglected subject: luxury fashion brand extensions. The study tests a more holistic model than those of previous studies on luxury brand extensions and utilises two different extension contexts adapted from Aaker and Keller (1990). Second, this study is the first to apply fsQCA to identify the factors of luxury brand extension evaluations. fsQCA is highly applicable to large-scale data without the loss of detail or the potential for complexity.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Kamilla Hanslin and Anne Rindell

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and identify consumer-brand relationships in a luxury brand context. The focus is on consumer-brand relationship forms emerging in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and identify consumer-brand relationships in a luxury brand context. The focus is on consumer-brand relationship forms emerging in relation to step-down line extensions of luxury brands. The study is positioned within fashion industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach is adopted analyzing data from 13 open consumer interviews. Photo collages of luxury brands and their step-down line extension logos were used as inspiration for informants in the interviews.

Findings

Findings show that consumer-brand relationships mostly follow earlier identified consumer-brand relationships. However, five new relationship types (status, inspirational, impulse, rewarding and turncoat) are identified. All but status relationships can be generalized also to other contexts than the luxury brand context.

Research limitations/implications

The study advances the understanding of luxury products and their step-down line extensions from a consumer perspective. However, due to the exploratory nature of the study the data are limited.

Practical implications

This study showed that step-down line extensions are not perceived as that important that they could not be replaced with another brand in the same product category. Informants often preferred step-down line extensions to parent brands due to their more suitable design, even when the informant was hypothetically asked if the opinion would change if economic issues were not a restraint. Managers are encouraged to analyze their brands based on a brand-relationship approach.

Originality/value

The study uses the concept consumer-brand relationship as a new way to understand how consumers relate to line extensions in a luxury brand context. The approach is novel.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Nadine Hennigs, Klaus‐Peter Wiedmann, Stefan Behrens, Christiane Klarmann and Juliane Carduck

Although the investigation of brand extension strategies has gained importance, existing research focusses primarily on consumer attitudes to brand extensions, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the investigation of brand extension strategies has gained importance, existing research focusses primarily on consumer attitudes to brand extensions, and to date, little research has been made on the luxury market. Moreover, studies on the impact of brand extensions have been limited to explicit measurement methods. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide new insights by focussing on the change of consumers’ brand perception related to downgrading and upgrading brand extensions strategies in the luxury market based on an implicit association test (IAT).

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory study context of examining the spontaneous reaction time with reference to the luxury concept by confronting respondents with adequate verbal brand extension stimuli, a ST‐IAT was considered for the empirical tests of these hypotheses.

Findings

The study results give evidence that consumers’ perception of an upgrading or downgrading strategy of a brand varies in accordance to these hypotheses. Hence, the reaction time of the H&M subjects decreased after having read the upgrading stimulus whereby, in the case of Karl Lagerfeld, the ST‐IAT reaction times showed that the downgrading information resulted in a weaker association of Karl Lagerfeld with luxury.

Originality/value

The use of implicit measurement methods is becoming increasingly important for assessing consumer reaction to the new product line. Particularly, when luxury brands apply a downgrading strategy, the risks of possible damages to the core brand are much higher than in the case of an upgrade of a basic brand to the luxury or premium segment.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Nathalie Veg-Sala and Elyette Roux

Considering a long-term perspective and the discourse directly emitted by brands, the aim is to study how can brand extension potential be predicted through the analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering a long-term perspective and the discourse directly emitted by brands, the aim is to study how can brand extension potential be predicted through the analysis of brand contracts?

Design/methodology/approach

Considering a long-term perspective and the discourse directly emitted by brands, the aim is to study how can brand extension potential be predicted through the analysis of brand contracts?

Findings

Three groups of brands are identified: brands anchored in both determination and mastery contracts defined as open (high extendibility); brands anchored in a determination contract defined as open, as well as in a mastery contract defined as closed (low extendibility); brands anchored in a mastery contract defined as open as well as in a determination contract defined as not closed (high extendibility, but risks of diluting the brand value).

Research limitations/implications

Compared with extensions actually developed by these brands, the results are discussed and strategies are proposed to maximize the long-term brand development when the brand extension potential is low. Only studied on products, it would be interesting to complete this analysis in services.

Originality/value

The main contribution is the focus on brand narratives and contracts to predict the brand extensibility of luxury brands. Structural semiotics provides another original insight.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Many luxury brands deploy brand extension strategies to add fragrances to their product portfolio. To succeed, firms must ensure a close fit between parent brand and extension so that the brand quality remains consistent. It is equally imperative that marketers are aware that consumers are more motivated to purchase fragrances for the emotional value they provide rather than for their functionality.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

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Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Annie Peng Cui, Theresa A. Wajda and Michael F. Walsh

The luxury brands sales in emerging markets will see rapid growth. When entering the emerging markets, luxury fashion brands always find it challenging to balance adaption…

Abstract

The luxury brands sales in emerging markets will see rapid growth. When entering the emerging markets, luxury fashion brands always find it challenging to balance adaption with local consumer culture and standardization to maintain their global brand image. The present study attempts to examine this intriguing issue of adaptation and standardization and many other challenges for luxury brands in the emerging market by focusing on China’s luxury market. A case study on China is conducted, which consisted of reviewing academic literature and consulting trade reports, examining over 50 luxury brands’ Chinese websites, reading newspaper articles, conducting field trips to luxury retail outlets, and studying luxury brands’ advertisements in major Chinese fashion magazines. We identified five intriguing market characteristics that must be taken into account in order to succeed in this market. Specifically, we found that to perform well in China’s luxury market, luxury brands should have a good understanding of the conflicting Chinese social cultural sentiments toward luxury consumption. Luxury brands should seek a balance between standardization and adaptation and appeal to both consumers’ converging needs and their desire for products that embrace local elements. Further, given the unique consumer characteristics, luxury brands should better serve the young and economically diverse consumer base in China.

Details

Entrepreneurship in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-448-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Nathalie Veg-Sala

The purpose of this paper is to define and understand the different models of brand development, according to the evolution of a brand’s identity and the introduction of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define and understand the different models of brand development, according to the evolution of a brand’s identity and the introduction of brand extensions, starting from the premise that brands must be managed in a consistent way over time, but also need to be expanded. The second aim of this article is to introduce a specific methodology for studying the development of brands with a long-term approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The concepts of assimilation and accommodation as defined by Piaget (1983) provide an in-depth understanding of how and why brands evolve. This article is based on a multiple case study approach. Four luxury brands were studied longitudinally. Brand chronologies were drawn and images of brand communications and brand extensions were gathered. Structural semiotic analysis was then used to highlight the different processes of brand development. In addition, qualitative interviews with two experts were conducted.

Findings

Hermès and Louis Vuitton develop their brands according to the assimilation model. Gucci and Dolce & Gabbana follow the accommodation model. There is a link between the brand’s identity type (symbolic/functional) and the model used for brand development. A detailed analysis of each model is presented highlighting the main features.

Research limitations/implications

To reinforce the distinction between the two models of brand development, it would be interesting to look at other brands. The choice of these brands depends on their country of origin and their age.

Originality/value

The main contributions of this paper are the dynamic and longitudinal analyses of brand development and the introduction of the assimilation and accommodation concepts. The use of semiotics constitutes another original feature of this research.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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