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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Ludo Cuyvers, Ermie Steenkamp, Wilma Viviers, Riaan Rossouw and Martin Cameron

This paper aims to identify Thailand’s realistic export opportunities (REOs) in the ASEAN+3 countries (i.e. ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and South Korea), which together…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify Thailand’s realistic export opportunities (REOs) in the ASEAN+3 countries (i.e. ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and South Korea), which together constitute an economically dynamic region and a strategic export destination for Thailand. Furthermore, the paper seeks to determine the extent to which Thailand already has a share in ASEAN+3 countries and where new opportunities lie. This allows the formulation of appropriate export promotion strategies for Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used is a decision support model (DSM) which uses an extensive data-filtering system to systematically screen and eliminate less-promising product–country combinations to ultimately reveal high-potential REOs. Product–country combinations are screened on the basis of country risk; macro-economic country performance; market potential in terms of import growth and import market size; and market access conditions, including market concentration and the existence of trade barriers. The thus narrowed-down REOs are categorised according to Thailand’s relative market share in, and the characteristics of, the identified import markets.

Findings

The study reveals that the ASEAN+3 countries account for about 40 per cent of the total potential export value of Thailand’s REOs in the world, with China leading the way (12.45 per cent), followed by Japan (8.56 per cent) and South Korea (6.23 per cent). However, Thailand has a relatively small or intermediately small market share in the majority of these REOs, pointing to the need for more offensive and exploratory export promotion strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The ASEAN+3 countries – given that they are an abundant source of REOs for Thailand and are in Thailand’s “backyard” – should receive more focused attention and resources in government export promotion efforts. The recent launch of the ASEAN Economic Community and the proposed establishment of an East Asia Free Trade Area lend weight to the idea of Thailand adopting a strong regional focus in its export activities.

Practical implications

The insights derived from the study are valuable for export promotion officials, industry representatives and practising exporters alike, as they constitute an easy-to-digest snapshot of high-potential REOs for Thailand in the ASEAN+3 region. This makes for more efficient planning and prioritising of export development activities, and a more streamlined approach to resource allocation.

Originality/value

Export promotion shows diminishing returns and requires sustainable strategies and interventions. The value in this paper lies in its description of an innovative market selection tool, the DSM, which is able to process and filter high volumes of information and arrive at a shortlist of high-potential REOs for Thailand in the ASEAN+3 countries. The paper represents a concise case study of the DSM in practice, which should be of particular interest to export promotion agencies, industry associations and both new and more established exporting countries.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Martin Cameron, Ludo Juul Cuyvers, Dahai Fu and Wilma Viviers

This paper aims to identify China’s realistic export opportunities (REOs) among the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) group of countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify China’s realistic export opportunities (REOs) among the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) group of countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used is a decision support model (DSM) that filters data based on country risk; macro-economic country performance; market potential in terms of import growth and import market size; and market access conditions. The high-potential REOs are revealed.

Findings

Out of the 84 BRI countries, 79 countries represent 42.5% of China’s REOs globally and 26.9% of China’s globally untapped potential value. Interestingly, 17.9% of this untapped potential is in the BRI countries Poland, Austria and the Czech Republic, thus providing a potentially important route into the European Union.

Research limitations/implications

If China wants to develop additional or new markets, focus should be put on the BRI markets outside of the top 20. China should also invest in the development of most BRI economies, to ensure their future growth and increased demand for import of products and services from China.

Practical implications

The shortlist of China’s REOs in the individual BRI countries makes for more efficient planning and prioritising of export development activities. It also highlights the need for policymakers to look beyond international trade and focus on how to also improve the domestic economies of the BRI partners.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to use the DSM to identify China’s REOs at HS6-digit level within the BRI group. The findings have important implications for China’s export promotion agencies, industry associations and individual companies.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Ludo Cuyvers, Philippe De Lombaerde and Glenn Rayp

This paper aims to introduce the subject of the impact of globalization and regionalization on the labour markets. The papers of the special issue are placed within this subject.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce the subject of the impact of globalization and regionalization on the labour markets. The papers of the special issue are placed within this subject.

Design/methodology/approach

Although the subject is not treated exhaustively, the papers presented are new contributions dealing with labour market institutions, efficiency wages, employment effects of outward foreign direct investment, immigration patterns, and regional social and labour policies. These diverse issues are dealt with in their relation with increasing globalization in developed economies.

Findings

The major conclusions of the papers in the special issue are put into the perspective of the state of the art of the research on the social impact of globalization, particularly the labour market consequences.

Originality/value

A more comprehensive analysis of globalisation, which takes into account the complementarity of the different channels through which its effects on labour markets are transmitted, becomes more and more necessary. The papers of the special issue attempt to look into a number of these channels and to some extent into their complementarity.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Ludo Cuyvers and Reth Soeng

The paper aims at providing evidence on the impact on employment of outward foreign direct investment, particularly from developed countries into low‐wage countries, which…

984

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims at providing evidence on the impact on employment of outward foreign direct investment, particularly from developed countries into low‐wage countries, which is a major concern in many developed countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of foreign production undertaken by Belgian foreign‐oriented companies on employment in Belgium are investigated by performing econometric tests for complementarity or substitution between home and affiliate employment. The data are from the Amadeus database and consist of a sample of 254 Belgian parent companies with foreign affiliates in low‐wage and other high‐wage European countries during the 1999‐2007 period.

Findings

The results show that, given the size of parent production in the home country, Belgian multinational enterprises with foreign affiliates in higher‐wage European countries tend to employ more labour at home the more they produce in the host country. This probably reflects the needs of foreign affiliates in higher‐wage European countries for management and supervisory services from parent companies. Another explanation might be that Belgian outward FDI is largely vertical. In contrast, no evidence is found about employment reallocation between parents and affiliates operating in lower‐wage European countries.

Originality/value

The paper provides evidence on overall effects on employment in Belgium of its outward foreign direct investment for the period 1999‐2007, i.e. using the most recent data available. In contrast to many other studies, statistical diagnostic tests were carried out to choose the appropriate model to best fit the data.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Ludo Cuyvers

A decision support model is presented and discussed which aims at identifying realistic export opportunities for a given exporting country. The model consists of a…

4431

Abstract

A decision support model is presented and discussed which aims at identifying realistic export opportunities for a given exporting country. The model consists of a screening process of four consecutive filters, through which relevant information on markets (such as country risk indicators, macroeconomic data, imports per product group, etc.) is fed, and which allows the identification and deletion of less interesting market opportunities. Results are reported of the application of this decision support model to the case of Thailand, adapted for an analysis of foreign trade data at the SITC four‐digit level up to 1997. These results are compared with previous results obtained using the same model. In this way, Thailand's export opportunities in individual countries, and in the Asia‐Pacific region in particular, are listed and categorised according to criteria such as import market characteristics and Thailand's market share in the various markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Michel Dumont, Nikolina Stojanovska and Ludo Cuyvers

The paper aims to assess to what extent the general trends with regard to world inequality can be explained by rising international economic integration, technological…

7045

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to assess to what extent the general trends with regard to world inequality can be explained by rising international economic integration, technological change and (labour market) institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the existing literature, the stylized facts on inequality between and within nations, globalisation and technological change are reviewed, after which the empirical evidence of the impact of international trade and poverty in developing countries is discussed.

Findings

The paper argues that despite substantial theoretical and empirical contributions, so far no straightforward conclusions are warranted. However, historical evidence suggests that, from a policy perspective, the rise in inequality – witnessed in a large number of developing as well as developed countries – ought to be acknowledged and tackled to avoid a possible backlash against globalisation. The inconclusiveness that empirical work on inequality and its determinants offers, might be explained by substantial differences across countries in their institutional framework.

Originality/value

The importance of interactions between institutions, technology and globalisation and their impact on world inequality is still not very well understood. The paper is an appeal for investigating more these interactions.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Ludo Cuyvers and Gerrit K. Janssens

Standardization and simplification of trade procedures constitutean urgent need to line up the document flow with the goods flow ininternational trade. Electronic data…

Abstract

Standardization and simplification of trade procedures constitute an urgent need to line up the document flow with the goods flow in international trade. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a co‐operative inter‐organizational information system providing electronic exchange of messages agreed between trade partners. Outlines a possible implementation procedure for EDI. A first part consists of a six‐step feasibility study. If this study ends with a positive recommendation the implementation procedure can start. Discussions of this process concern several requirements: completely understand about EDI; agree on standards with business partners; modify existing systems; translate data: prepare communications; and management and audit of the whole process. Concerning the cost‐benefit analysis for the EDI application – a step which is mandatory in the feasibility study – gives further details on different types of cost (recurring and non‐recurring, direct and indirect) and on both quantifiable and non‐quantifiable benefits.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Weifeng Zhou and Ludo Cuyvers

The European Union's Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) has existed for over 40 years and it aimed to promote the export growth in the developing countries. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The European Union's Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) has existed for over 40 years and it aimed to promote the export growth in the developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evolution and characteristics of the EU's GSP regime and examine the effectiveness of the EU's GSP in promoting the export growth of ten ASEAN beneficiary countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse the trade flows between the EU and ASEAN beneficiary countries under the GSP scheme by referring to trade data (1990‐2007) at the aggregate level, the sectoral level and individual beneficiary country level.

Findings

The authors find that using the EU's GSP to promote the exports growth of the ASEAN countries has very limited effectiveness. Although the total EU imports from the ASEAN countries experienced a significant increase during the period 1990‐2007, the preferential imports under the GSP scheme remained stagnated at the same period. However, the least developed ASEAN members reported very high utilization rates and successfully exploited GSP preferences for pushing up their exports to the European market.

Originality/value

This work provides new evidence on whether the EU's GSP really works and to what extent the EU's GSP enhances the export growth of ASEAN beneficiary countries. The empirical findings may provide trade policymakers with some guidance in making EU trade policy.

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Ludo Cuyvers and Reth Soeng

The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of changes in the Generalized System of Preferences of the European Union, on the EU GSP imports from beneficiary…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of changes in the Generalized System of Preferences of the European Union, on the EU GSP imports from beneficiary countries in ASEAN and China, and Latin America, respectively, and the utilization of GSP benefits by these countries for the period 1994‐2007.

Design/methodology/approach

The econometric model specifications used is with unlagged and one year lagged reactions. GSP dummy variables are added in order to test whether the changes in the EU GSP has had impact on bilateral trade flows and the degree of utilization.

Findings

The paper finds that EU GSP agricultural imports are negatively affected by the changes in the EU GSP system, but these of industrial products seem to have positively reacted to changes in the EU GSP. For imports of textile products, the results are not significant. It is also found that ASEAN plus China are significantly benefiting more from the EU GSP for industrial and textile products than the Latin American countries, but the changes in the GSP had no significant different effect on both groups of countries. The authors estimations also show that the graduation mechanism in the EU GSP, against beneficiary countries with higher EU market shares, seems to be effective for industrial products, but in contrast, is working in favour of such countries for textile products. By and large, the other graduation mechanism in the EU GSP linking GSP benefits and level of development of the beneficiary country has not been effective.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to address the issue how the many changes in the EU GSP since 1994 have affected the exports and GSP utilization of beneficiary countries.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Weifeng Zhou and Ludo Cuyvers

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trends of antidumping actions targeting East Asia and to examine the macroeconomic determinants of European Union (EU…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trends of antidumping actions targeting East Asia and to examine the macroeconomic determinants of European Union (EU) antidumping actions against East Asian countries including China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

A Negative Binomial Regression approach is used to estimate the macroeconomic determinants (exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, and unemployment rates) of EU antidumping actions against East Asian countries.

Findings

The empirical estimation results suggest that the macroeconomic determinants (exchange rates, GDP growth, and unemployment rates) significantly affect antidumping initiations against a particular country in a particular year; in addition, the changing competitive structure and environment in international trade play a role in prompting antidumping actions, and the countries which are larger sources of EU imports are more likely to be hit with antidumping actions.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the macroeconomic determinants of EU antidumping actions targeting East Asian countries and the empirical estimation results provide strong evidence. It also finds that the changing competitive structure and environment in international trade prompt antidumping actions.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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