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Thomas Maeder, Caroline Jacq, Ludivine Ammon and Perer Ryser
The purpose of this paper is to study tuneable positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect in polymer-wax-carbon composite resistors. The resistivity dependence on…
The purpose of this paper is to study tuneable positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect in polymer-wax-carbon composite resistors. The resistivity dependence on temperature of composite resistors made of carbon fillers dispersed in an organic matrix is known to be strongly affected by the matrix thermal expansion. High PTC effects, i.e. essentially switching from resistive to quasi-insulating behaviour, can be caused by phase changes in the matrix and the assorted volume expansion, a behaviour that has been previously shown with both simple organic waxes and semi-crystalline polymers. However, waxes become very liquid on melting, possibly resulting in carbon sedimentation, and tuneability of semi-crystalline polymers is limited.
The authors therefore study a ternary polymer-wax-conductor (ethylcellulose-octadecanol-graphite) composite resistor system, where polymer and wax fuse to a viscous liquid on heating, and re-solidify and separate by crystallisation of the wax on cooling.
It is shown that with appropriate formulation, the resulting resistors exhibit strong PTC effects, linked with the melting and crystallisation of the wax component. The behaviour somewhat depends on sample history, and notably cooling speed.
The phase equilibria and transformation kinetics of the polymer-wax system (including possible wax polymorphism), as well as the exact mechanism of the conductivity transition, remain to be investigated.
As many compatible polymer-wax systems with different melting/solidification behaviours are available, ternary polymer-wax-conductor composite PTC resistors allow a high tuneability of properties. Moreover, the high viscosity in the liquid state should largely avoid the sedimentation issues present with binary wax-conductor systems.