Search results

1 – 6 of 6
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Luciana Pereira de Vasconcelos, Luiza de Oliveira Rodrigues and Moacyr Roberto Cuce Nobre

Good medical practice, evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have been recurring subjects in the scientific literature. EBM advocates argue…

Abstract

Purpose

Good medical practice, evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have been recurring subjects in the scientific literature. EBM advocates argue that good medical practice should be guided by evidence-based CPG. On the other hand, critical authors of EBM methodology argue that various interests undermine the quality of evidence and reliability of CPG recommendations. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate patient related outcomes of CPG implementation, in light of EBM critics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors opted for a rapid literature review.

Findings

There are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of CPG in patient-related outcomes. The systematic reviews found are not conclusive, although they suggest a positive impact of CPGs in relevant outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This work was not a systematic review of literature, which is its main limitation. On the other hand, arguments from EBM and CPG critics were considered, and thus it can enlighten health institutions to recognize the caveats and to establish policies toward care improvement.

Originality/value

The paper is the first of its kind to discuss, based on the published literature, next steps toward better health practice, while acknowledging the caveats of this process.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Lucas Veiga Ávila, Thiago Antonio Beuron, Luciana Londero Brandli, Luana Inês Damke, Rudiney Soares Pereira and Leander Luiz Klein

Sustainability has become a global concern to deal with complex and unprecedent survival, social, political and peace issues. Higher education institutions play a key role…

1410

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainability has become a global concern to deal with complex and unprecedent survival, social, political and peace issues. Higher education institutions play a key role in this transformation. This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis by continents of innovation and sustainability barriers in universities. The document also offers opportunities and potential actions for universities to create initiatives to minimize barriers and move towards a sustainable future.

Design/methodology/approach

To carry out the study, 25 closed questions, composed of a five-point Likert scale, were applied to 283 university representatives (rectors, managers or specialists in the area of innovation and sustainability), to check the degree of application of the questionnaire.

Findings

From an exploratory statistical analysis, it was found that the main barriers were lacking of planning and focus, lacking of environmental committee, lacking of applicability and continuity of actions and resistance to changes. Among continents, Africa and Oceania presented the best innovation and sustainability indicators in universities. The main approach of this exploratory study on barriers in universities is as an international research, whose findings showed that several barriers currently prevent universities from getting involved in sustainable development efforts. However, as we debate sustainable development, which is gaining momentum, universities are supposed to move forward to overcome barriers for the sake of implementing goals and initiatives. In addition, universities must seize opportunities to contribute through innovation in teaching, research and initiatives to achieve the 17 sustainable development goals.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two main limitations: first, online research has involved professionals working in the field of sustainable development in higher education. Second, there were no interviews conducted to gather personal information with students and servers. However, the broad scope of the study and its strong international base provide important results that enable the design of an adequate profile of sustainability and innovation challenges that are currently found in universities.

Practical implications

The study showed that there is lack of knowledge management to connect science, technology, innovation and sustainability, to improve management conditions, innovate, make decisions, support initiatives, create incentives and control mechanisms. Trends suggest that future professional activities involve skills in dealing with complex problems, sometimes in careers and jobs yet to be created. Traditional teaching methods are generally only prepared for routine tasks and for existing jobs, thus requiring the creation of new approaches capable of stimulating creativity and autonomy, which are essential for the present and future demands of innovation and sustainability.

Social implications

The exploratory study on barriers in universities brings international research as main approach, which made it possible to check that several barriers currently prevent universities from getting involved in sustainable development efforts. However, as we debate sustainable development, which is gaining momentum, it is important that universities should move forward to overcome the barriers to implementation of goals and initiatives. In addition, universities should take advantage of opportunities to contribute through innovation in teaching, research and action to achieve the 17 sustainable development goals.

Originality/value

Developed countries are leaders in promoting sustainability, while developing or underdeveloped countries are laggards. In this approach, the study sought to verify the differences through a comparative analysis across continents. As for originality and innovation, this paper presents an international study in the view of specialists who respond based on the experience of their university.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Luiz Antonio Felix Júnior, Wênyka Preston Leite Batista da Costa, Luciana Gondim de Almeida Guimarães, Glauber Ruan Barbosa Pereira and Walid Abbas El-Aouar

The participation of society is a valuable aspect of the governability of cities, for it strengthens the citizens’ collaborative component. Such participation, which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The participation of society is a valuable aspect of the governability of cities, for it strengthens the citizens’ collaborative component. Such participation, which is seen as social, is considered an essential element for the design of a smart city. This study aims to identify the factors that contribute to social participation in the definition of budgetary instruments’ planning.

Design/methodology/approach

Concerning the methodological instruments, this study is characterised by a quantitative and descriptive approach and uses a multivariate data analysis with a sample of 235 respondents.

Findings

The study’s findings identified a framework that portrays elements that collaborate with the social participation in the definition of the public administration’s budgetary instruments, which are considered as elements that are able to develop the role of the popular participation and are characterised by the definition of a smart city by enabling more assertiveness in society’s needs.

Practical implications

Identification of a framework that brings out elements that are able to develop the popular participation in the definition of budgetary instruments. Then, one scale of elements that contribute to social participation in the definition of the public administration’s budgetary instruments theoretically represented and statistically validated, thus contributing to the continuity of studies on social participation.

Social implications

Through studies on social participation in budgetary planning, it is possible to guarantee a better allocation of public resources through intelligent governability.

Originality/value

The research can bring theoretical elements about social participation in the definition of budget instruments for a statistical convergence through the perception of the sample.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to estimate the overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and evaluate the accuracy of an antibody rapid test compared to a reference serological assay during a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison complex housing over 13,000 prisoners in Brasília.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors obtained a randomized, stratified representative sample of each prison unit and conducted a repeated serosurvey among prisoners between June and July 2020, using a lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Samples were also retested using a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) to compare SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and 21-days incidence, as well as to estimate the overall infection fatality rate (IFR) and determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LFIA test.

Findings

This study identified 485 eligible individuals and enrolled 460 participants. Baseline and 21-days follow-up seroprevalence were estimated at 52.0% (95% CI 44.9–59.0) and 56.7% (95% CI 48.2–65.3) with LFIA; and 80.7% (95% CI 74.1–87.3) and 81.1% (95% CI 74.4–87.8) with CLIA, with an overall IFR of 0.02%. There were 78.2% (95% CI 66.7–89.7) symptomatic individuals among the positive cases. Sensitivity and specificity of LFIA were estimated at 43.4% and 83.3% for IgM; 46.5% and 91.5% for IgG; and 59.1% and 77.3% for combined tests.

Originality/value

The authors found high seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies within the prison complex. The occurrence of asymptomatic infection highlights the importance of periodic mass testing in addition to case-finding of symptomatic individuals; however, the field performance of LFIA tests should be validated. This study recommends that vaccination strategies consider the inclusion of prisoners and prison staff in priority groups.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2020

Sara Joana Gadotti dos Anjos and Diego Bufquin

Abstract

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Anselmo Ferreira Vasconcelos

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Brazilian organizations have handled diversity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Brazilian organizations have handled diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws upon the historical analysis by focusing essentially on secondary sources of data, surface-level indicators, namely, race, gender and age. Accordingly, the major sources of information used in this study are the rankings of the Great Place to Work® Institute Brazil (between 2005 and 2013) and from the Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment’s reports (between 2009 and 2013).

Findings

The evidence gathered from the Great Place to Work® Institute Brazil’s lists and the Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment’s reports produced mixed results regarding the moral imperative derived from the acculturation of a broad diversity mindset.

Research limitations/implications

This study is not free from limitations. Both sources used in this inquiry do not depict other relevant data that could provide more accurate results.

Practical implications

Overall, the findings of this study suggest that training programs and sound work values revision are necessary steps to reduce discrimination, stereotypes, gender bias and to promote diversity and inclusion inside Brazilian organizations.

Originality/value

It contributes to the understanding of the current diversity scenario in Brazilian organizations by drawing on a historical analysis method. It relied on two germane secondary sources of data.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

1 – 6 of 6