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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Lucas Duarte, Enlinson Mattos and Juliana Serillo

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods, and simulate the marginal social cost of cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers (MSCKT) for Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a theoretical model based on Wildasin to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds. Next it estimates using instrumental variables approach the variables necessary to calibrate our theoretical model.

Findings

The marginal social cost of public funds depends on the relation between labor supply and the cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers. Last, the simulations suggest that MSCKT can increase up to 12.4 percent if compared with cases in which is assumed ordinary independence between labor and the bundle of goods provided by the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Further panel data experiments based on municipal public finance data should be conducted in order to circumvent the agents' heterogeneity problem inherent in cross section analysis – and individuals' labor supply response could be more sensitive at this data level. Finally, such cost‐benefit analysis makes more sense when a specific project is considered and therefore its effects on the taxed good can be clearly estimated leading to a more reliable estimative of the marginal social cost of funding that project.

Social implications

Governments should take the actual social cost of public policies into consideration before undertaking any new project.

Originality/value

The paper is useful to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds, estimate the necessary parameters and, last, to calibrate its correspondent using Brazilian data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Juan Carlos Lucas Aguirre, German Antonio Giraldo Giraldo and Misael Cortés Rodríguez

In order to understand interactions aw vs equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in fortified coconut powder, moisture sorption isotherms were constructed under different…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to understand interactions aw vs equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in fortified coconut powder, moisture sorption isotherms were constructed under different storage conditions in order to predict the changes in their physical, chemical and microbiological properties that occur during storage and processing, which are unique to each food.

Design/methodology/approach

For which the moisture sorption isotherms were determined at three different temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C), in a range of water activity from 0.1 to 0.90. Nine models, namely, the GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Halsey, Henderson, Chung and Pfost, Peleg and Caurie equations, were fitted to the sorption data. Various statistical tests were adopted as criteria to evaluate the fit performance of the models.

Findings

Of the models tested, the Peleg model gave the best fit to experimental data (R2 = 0.997; RMSE = 0.276), across the full range of water activities and at different temperatures. Humidity of the monolayer (mo) was found between 2.54 and 2.34%, a fundamental parameter to define the storage and control conditions, given that it is considered the value at which the product is more stable. The net sorption isosteric heat (Qst) increased to maximum and then diminished with increased moisture content (Xw); maximum values were obtained in the Xw interval between 0.48 and 2.87% (db), being between 35.72 and 99.26 kJ/mol, where the maximum value indicates coverage of the strongest bond sites and higher adsorbate-adsorbent interaction.

Originality/value

These results provide reliable experimental data on water absorption isotherms of the CP + FAC important to determine optimal processing, storing and packaging conditions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Abstract

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Hugo Chu

This chapter provides an alternative interpretation of the emergence of the “Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans” growth model, a framework which, alongside the overlapping generation

Abstract

This chapter provides an alternative interpretation of the emergence of the “Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans” growth model, a framework which, alongside the overlapping generation model, is the dominant approach in today’s macroeconomics. By focusing on the role Paul Samuelson played through the works he developed in the turnpike literature, the author’s goal is to provide a more accurate history of growth theory of the 1940–1960s, one which started before Solow (1956) but never had him as a central reference. Inspired by John von Neumann’s famous 1945 article, Samuelson wrote his first turnpike paper by trying to conjecture an alternative optimal growth path (Samuelson, 1949 [1966]). In the 1960s, after reformulating the intertemporal utility model presented in Ramsey (1928), Samuelson began to propound it as a representative agent model. Through Samuelson’s interactions with colleagues and PhD students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and given his standing in the profession, he encouraged a broader use of that device in macroeconomics, particularly, in growth theory. With the publication of Samuelson (1965), Tjalling Koopmans and Lionel McKenzie rewrote their own articles in order to account for the new approach. This work complements a recently written account on growth theory by Assaf and Duarte (2018).

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Selection of Papers Presented at the 2019 ALAHPE Conference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-140-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Varsha Agarwal, Ganesh L. and Sunitha B.K.

This paper aims to investigate impact of coronavirus COVID-19 on children’s mental health specifically emotional and behavioral disorders. It aims at identifying the main…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate impact of coronavirus COVID-19 on children’s mental health specifically emotional and behavioral disorders. It aims at identifying the main disorders faced by children during epidemics and suggests recommendations to nurture resilience among children and involving them in various positive activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on review of literature focused on COVID-19. Recent articles related to coronavirus or COVID-19 and psychological distress among children were included to draw conclusion and impact of COVID-19 on mental health of children. Due to the limited availability of studies on CONID-19 impact on mental health of children, studies focused on recent pandemic were focused.

Findings

The identified literature reports a negative impact of COVID-19 on individual’s mental health. Relatives’ health, poor appetite, fear of asking questions about epidemics, agitation, clinginess, physical discomfort, nightmares and poor sleep, inattention and separation issues were among the major psychological conditions analyzed. Personal attributes such as resilience, should be nurtured so that children will be empowered to manage difficult situations such as traumas and disappointments. Several measures were suggested by pediatricians in China to family members and parents such as playing games with children to reduce feeling of loneliness, increased communication to address their concerns and fears, promoting and encouraging physical activities and involving in musical activities to reduce fear, worry and stress among children.

Originality/value

Coronavirus is new pandemic and growing rapidly. most of the research studies are focused on physical health of individuals, but mental health concept has bene overlooked. This study helps to broaden the scope of research on children's mental health by examining the impact of COVID-19.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Lucas Manoel Marques Clemente, Alexandre Pereira Salgado Junior, Eduardo Falsarella Júnior, Marco Antonio Alves de Souza Junior, Juliana Chiaretti Novi and Alexandre de Castro Moura Duarte

The purpose of this study was to identify a set of management practices towards financial sustainability for Brazilian private health insurance and plans companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to identify a set of management practices towards financial sustainability for Brazilian private health insurance and plans companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper uses a bimodal two-step approach. The first step was quantitative, with the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique in 521 Brazilian private health companies (PHCs). At this stage, the objective was to obtain scores to rank the PHCs regarding their financial performance and services in 2013. From the quantitative analysis, two PHCs displaying contrasting performances were selected and interviewed to identify differentiating management practices.

Findings

The Group Medicine PHCs displayed a higher performance in the financial approach. Following the qualitative comparative analysis, the financially sustainable PHC presented the following differentials: a high level of financial management professionalization, a deliberate policy for the control and prevention of claims and a larger share of revenues from health plans over service revenues.

Research limitations/implications

However, a limitation of the study lies in the fact that by not using any cash flow or financial result variables, the financial efficiency model used in the study does not evaluate the generation capacity of long-term results. It is noteworthy that, because it is a multiple case study, the results found cannot be generalized and should be understood only as characteristics of the studied PHCs in here.

Practical implications

The present paper can contribute to managers of Brazilian PCHs towards the implementation of management tools aimed at the sustainability of those organizations.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of the Supplemental Health Insurance System for public health in Brazil, PHCs have received a high volume of complaints and struggled with constant financial problems.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Daniel Oviedo and Luis Ángel Guzmán

This chapter presents a critical examination of the interaction between concepts such as equity and accessibility in a framework of sustainable and inclusive urban…

Abstract

This chapter presents a critical examination of the interaction between concepts such as equity and accessibility in a framework of sustainable and inclusive urban development. The analysis compiles a series of reflections that build on previous research that focusses on the role of transport as enabler of opportunities for material and social capital, healthcare and leisure, which contribute to human development and well-being. The research discusses accessibility metrics for mandatory and non-mandatory travel in the context of current global agendas for social and development policies. It also introduces methodological reflections in relation to the analysis of accessibility indices from an equity perspective highlighting the role of equity metrics such as the Palma ratio and Lorenz curves. The authors link accessibility and urban development seeking to inform current approaches for policy development and assessment in a context of high manifested inequity. The research is set in the context of the Bogotá Metropolitan Region, a paradigmatic case of transport development and policy in the Global South. The findings seek to contribute to present transport policy and practice, providing relevant insights to support actions that redistribute accessibility to opportunities and questioning some of the paradigms of mainstream transport planning in cities like Bogotá, suggesting a more relevant role of transport policy as a potential engine of equity and social development.

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Lake Sagaris and Ignacio Tiznado-Aitken

Sustainable transport is often defined according to energy efficiency and environmental impacts. With global approval during Habitat III, however, a set of Sustainable…

Abstract

Sustainable transport is often defined according to energy efficiency and environmental impacts. With global approval during Habitat III, however, a set of Sustainable Development Goals have become the focus for human development until 2030, underlining the relevance of health, equity and other social issues.

These goals raise the challenge of achieving significant progress towards ‘transport justice’ in diverse societies and contexts. While exclusion occurs for different reasons, discrimination, based on cultural roles, combines with sexual harassment and other mobility barriers to limit women’s mobility. This makes gender an area of particular interest and potential insight for considering equity within sustainability and its social components.

Using data from Metropolitan Santiago to ground a conceptual exploration, this chapter examines the equity implications of women’s travel patterns and sustainable transport. Key findings underline the importance of considering non-work trip purposes and achieving better land-use combinations to accommodate care-oriented trips. Moreover, barriers linked to unsafe public transport environments limit women’s mobility and, therefore, their participation. Women account for a disproportionately high number of walking trips, a situation that can be interpreted as ‘greater sustainability’ in terms of energy use and emissions, but suggests significant inequalities in access. Environmental and economic sustainability gains may be achieved at a high social cost, unless specific measures are taken.

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Norma I. Peña-Rivera and Enery López-Navarrete

Transportation planning has conventionally examined mobility from the standpoint of the efficiency of transportation systems, based on trips as units of analysis…

Abstract

Transportation planning has conventionally examined mobility from the standpoint of the efficiency of transportation systems, based on trips as units of analysis, overlooking the social needs of excluded groups, such as children. Understanding children’s geographies provides insight into one of the basic social needs of children, intrinsically related to mobility: play. Disadvantages in mobility, along with other social conditions further limit children’s autonomy in their neighbourhood. This chapter proposes the term playability as a concept that intertwines both needs. A case study of neighbourhood analyses the playability needs of children from their perspective and that of the community. Findings suggest that, in a walkable, built environment, issues from criminal activity directly influence children’s playability, even more than automobile presence. Furthermore, community perspective on playability, as mostly limited to structured play in designated spaces and time, separates mobility from play and thus limits opportunities for social inclusion. A change in both, acknowledging children’s need for play and mobility, and their reciprocity, and incorporating measures to improve it, may provide a different framework for transportation and urban planning at the local level, one that seeks greater social inclusion of children.

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

Keywords

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