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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Fahim Ullah, Min Kang, Lubna Hassan, Ninghui Li, Jun Yang, Xingsheng Wang and Mansoor Khan Khattak

The purpose of the study was to develop a performance flat-plate solar collector that would be used as a solar drier for fruit fig (Ficus carica L). This study proposes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to develop a performance flat-plate solar collector that would be used as a solar drier for fruit fig (Ficus carica L). This study proposes how and why solar energy is important for drying the agricultural products. This study aims to expand the domain of solar collector for different purposes and, most important, for agricultural resource normally found in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using the flat-plate solar collector with drying chamber for drying purposes of agricultural products. During the experiment, the data were collected with moisture content, drying rate of the product and solar irradiation falls on the collector.

Findings

This paper describes that how flat-plate collector works for agricultural products and how to reduce the moisture content in the product (fig). Efficiency of collector was evaluated under the ambient temperatures of 24°C. Efficiency also significantly increased from 53 to 55 per cent with an increase in ambient temperature from 22 to 24 °C. Figs (Ficus carica L) were dried in the drying chamber of the flat-plate solar collector. The products were dried at temperature of 55-65°C and 15 to 20 per cent humidity.

Research limitations/implications

Because of this research chosen, the research results are beneficiary for agricultural users for drying purposes. Therefore, the researchers are encouraged to dry the agricultural product with flat-plate solar collector, because it reduced the moisture content of the product very fast.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study that how flat-plat solar collector can be used.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Muhammad Ahsan Sadiq, Balasundaram Rajeswari and Lubna Ansari

The purpose of the paper is to segment and profile the Indian shoppers in the context of organic foods in India. It proposes to use a healthy lifestyle (HL) as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to segment and profile the Indian shoppers in the context of organic foods in India. It proposes to use a healthy lifestyle (HL) as a segmenting variable and to use a factor-cluster analysis approach to achieve the same. The current study is expected to add a substantial base to the segmentation literature in marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Food stores in Indian metropolitan city Chennai are sampled, and data is collected in the form of a mall intercept survey method. In total, 441 usable structured questionnaires are filled by the respondents which are subjected to suitable statistical analysis.

Findings

Three significantly different consumer segments emerged from the given sample of respondents, which shows uniqueness concerning consumer’s, HL features, demographics and the variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB).

Research limitations/implications

Clustering method used to segment the potential shoppers of organic foods is an exploratory technique only. It cannot be treated or generalized to the population like those of inferential techniques. The researcher suggested testing the same with a larger sample size and in a different context. It is limited to urban and suburban facets of the metropolitan city in India.

Originality/value

The study will be helpful to marketers and decision makers to target the potential organic foods consumers.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Salime Mehtap, Leyla Ozmenekse and Andrea Caputo

Women and disadvantaged minorities within emerging and developing economies often resort to business activity within the informal economy as a way to overcome various…

Abstract

Purpose

Women and disadvantaged minorities within emerging and developing economies often resort to business activity within the informal economy as a way to overcome various barriers and challenges to formal workforce participation. This paper aims to explore the characteristics, motives, barriers and challenges of female engagement in informal business activities in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative analysis used in this paper is based upon empirical findings from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 female informal entrepreneurs in Amman, Jordan.

Findings

The study revealed that informal female entrepreneurs tend to be both opportunity- and necessity-driven. Generating profit and contributing to the household income seems to be their main motive. Their businesses were funded either through personal savings or from their social network (e.g. husband, family and friends). Promotion of the business relied mostly on word-of-mouth or social media. High inflation, high competition, time pressures and lack of business skills were cited as the biggest challenges. Besides being content with the status quo, lack of knowledge about the procedures for registering a business and fear of bureaucracy were among the main reasons for not legalizing their activities.

Originality/value

There are very few studies that analyse informal micro-entrepreneurship in the Arab world, particularly in the Jordanian context, which is of growing interest due to low number of women in the workforce and the growing number of refugees in the country. This study therefore presents new knowledge around women’s informal micro-entrepreneurship in Jordan and provides recommendations for further research and policy-making.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Farrukh Naveed, Idrees Khawaja and Lubna Maroof

This study aims to comparatively analyze the systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk exposure of both Islamic and conventional funds in Pakistan to see which of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to comparatively analyze the systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk exposure of both Islamic and conventional funds in Pakistan to see which of the funds has higher risk exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes different types of risks involved in both Islamic and conventional funds for the period from 2009 to 2016 by using different risk measures. For systematic and idiosyncratic risk single factor CAPM and multifactor models such as Fama French three factors model and Carhart four factors model are used. For downside risk analysis different measures such as downside beta, relative beta, value at risk and expected short fall are used.

Findings

The study finds that Islamic funds have lower risk exposure (including total, systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk) compared with their conventional counterparts in most of the sample years, and hence, making them appear more attractive for investment especially for Sharīʿah-compliant investors preferring low risk preferences.

Practical implications

As this study shows, Islamic mutual funds exhibit lower risk exposure than their conventional counterparts so investors with lower risk preferences can invest in these kinds of funds. In this way, this research provides the input to the individual investors (especially Sharīʿah-compliant investors who want to avoid interest based investment) to help them with their investment decisions as they can make a more diversified portfolio by considering Islamic funds as a mean for reducing the risk exposure.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first attempt at world level in looking at the comparative risk analysis of various types of the risks as follows: systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk, for both Islamic and conventional funds, and thus, provides significant contribution in the literature of mutual funds.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Ahlam Hassan Al Marzouqi and Nick Forster

The purpose of this paper is to describe the principal reasons why Emirate women are under‐represented in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) information technology (IT…

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1885

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the principal reasons why Emirate women are under‐represented in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) information technology (IT) sector; and the barriers and challenges that national women have encountered while working in this sector of the national economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on data from 20 structured in‐depth interviews conducted with Emirate women who had worked for a minimum of five years in IT.

Findings

Although national women have made remarkable inroads into almost all professions and occupations in recent years, they are still noticeably under‐represented in IT, particularly in the private sector. In addition, very few are in senior‐level positions and there are, at the time of writing, no Emirate women technology‐entrepreneurs. The results show that cultural and familial factors still inhibit many young Emirate women from choosing careers in this profession, and negative gendered attitudinal assumptions about women are still prevalent within the local IT sector.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small, so we were unable to test specific research hypotheses, or compare our results with quantitative cohort surveys conducted in other countries. Nevertheless, the findings warrant additional research, as increasing numbers of Emirate women graduate from local universities with IT/MIS degrees, and further research on this topic is described.

Practical implications

Five practical strategies are identified to encourage more young Emirate women to embrace IT careers in the future.

Originality/value

This is the first research on this issue conducted in the UAE/GCC region.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Lubna Javed Rizvi and Zahid Hussain

This paper aims to review the literature of CG regime in Saudi Arabia, an emerging market for several compelling reasons. Most of the earlier literature on corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the literature of CG regime in Saudi Arabia, an emerging market for several compelling reasons. Most of the earlier literature on corporate governance subjects mainly aimed at large emerging economies. To date, there is a lack of studies examining the following: authorities and obligations, subcommittees and the regulatory system in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to bridge this gap by reviewing the current laws, regulation, trends and key reforms in corporate governance framework in the country as the current amended laws focused to offer more competence and precision to the regulatory setting in line with the development of the Saudi Arabian stock market and the influx of foreign reserves.

Design/methodology/approach

The current paper has espoused a content analysis approach in which relevant literature was deliberated and studied.

Findings

The amended CG rules include some developments into corporate governance and substitutes the earlier version of the long overdue regulation of 1965. The new 2017 implemented Code will reinforce the implication of good governance as a condition model for accomplishing good financial management in the country. This study has provided an overview of the evolution and development of corporate governance in Saudi Arabia by highlighting the key reforms.

Research limitations/implications

This study has implications for the policymakers and institutional bodies to review the current developments and progress in the country’s overall corporate governance framework in an attempt to attract more foreign direct investment. Saudi Arabia is among the nations that have a potential for huge foreign investments due to its plan of expanding its economy “Vision 2030.” Therefore, this paper will aid foreign investors in deciding to invest in the country after reviewing the current developments in an attempt to implement vision 2030.

Originality/value

This study contributes to existing literature by examining the current trends in CG, with the discussion on the development of company law in Saudi Arabia which emphasizes on sections that borders on corporate governance.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Ahmet Demir, Lubna Maroof, Noor Us Sabbah Khan and Bayad Jamal Ali

In this study, we have collected the response from 200 private university lecturers in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. In order to test the hypotheses, we have proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we have collected the response from 200 private university lecturers in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. In order to test the hypotheses, we have proposed structural equations modeling (SEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the direct and indirect effects of e-service quality on perceived value, satisfaction and willingness to pay for online meeting platforms in the education sector. This study also explores the effect of e-service quality on users' perception and satisfaction.

Findings

The results reveal that e-service quality directly affects the perceived value and satisfaction but has no direct effect on the willingness to pay. Secondly, perceived value and satisfaction mediated the relationships between service quality and willingness to pay. However, it is observed that perceived value has a more significant impact on the willingness to pay compared to satisfaction. It is further reported that perceived value is one of the antecedents of satisfaction. The study also explores the direct relationship between perceived value and willingness to pay, and introduces satisfaction as a mediating variable between perceived value and willingness to pay.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is geographically limited as only online faculty and staff working at private universities participated in the study. This study has implications for administrators of higher educational institutions and companies providing IT solutions for online meetings. From a managerial standpoint, this study provides and IT companies a broad theoretical basis that designing a successful online meeting platform should specifically emphasize e-service quality, perceived value and customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

There is no study that evaluated the links among e-service quality, value, satisfaction, and willingness to pay for the online meeting platform services. Therefore, this study is useful for the private university administration and online meeting platform developers and investors.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Tanzeela Aqif and Abdul Wahab

The increased awareness among consumers and strong competition have forced companies to put extra efforts and fulfill their social responsibility along with earning…

Abstract

Purpose

The increased awareness among consumers and strong competition have forced companies to put extra efforts and fulfill their social responsibility along with earning profits. The research aims to review corporate social responsibility (CSR)-related literature specifically determinants, outcomes and disclosure of CSR while adapting a comparative approach for developing and developed countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on theoretical frameworks of CSR, the authors have reviewed past studies conducted in past 10 years. While using keywords and synonyms, the databases such as JSTOR, Emerald, SpringerLink and ScienceDirect were used for searching impact factor and Scopus journals. Thematic analysis has been used as a method in the paper while identifying the key themes in study and presented them separately. Only those articles have been included which have key words in abstract. The review has been done while using logical process to improve inter-rater reliability. The key databased have been used to cover articles from multiple and diverse domains. The authors studied the key themes of literature found and identified the gaps. The paper has also incorporated the comments of authors who conducted credible studies.

Findings

It has been found that there are different determinants which lead the companies to involve in CSR practices in developing and developed countries. It has also been found that consumers are more aware about CSR in developed countries which effects the CSR decisions by firms. There is lack of literature available in developing states and researchers have been focused to conduct studies mainly developed countries such as in Europe and USA. Mostly the CSR behavior of companies has been linked with their financial and reputational benefits in empirical studies. There is large gap in literature on CSR involvement in small companies. The authors have developed and presented model which provides comparison of determinants leading toward CSR involvement by companies in developed and developing countries. Another framework has been developed which summarized all the factors which force the company to take part in CSR activities.

Practical implications

The study has made significant contribution toward research field and summarized the determinants based on social and economic factors of countries. The study also presented the comparison between CSR in developing and developed country which is valuable contribution by the authors. The study has also found lack of progress in theory development in this area which needs further attention by researchers. The authors have developed a model and framework which will contribute in field of CSR.

Originality/value

This is the review paper which provides integrated view of literature regarding determinants, outcomes and disclosure of CSR in developing countries while using a comparative approach.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Linzi J. Kemp

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the progress in the United Arab Emirates towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal (3), “gender equality”, by the

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2194

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the progress in the United Arab Emirates towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal (3), “gender equality”, by the target date of 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic, social, and labor force statistics are collected from United Arab Emirates' government reports, the World Economic Forum, and UNESCO. Analysis is conducted to investigate current trends of gender equality in education and employment.

Findings

Results for the education of women have been at a consistently high level for some years. Two themes are found for such progress: a government strategy to increase women's access to education; societal acceptance of educated women. Gender equality in employment is slow due to three themes: study choice dictates employment potential; recruitment within a narrow range of occupations; employment more likely within public sector employment. The future of gender equality in the United Arab Emirates will continue to be more positive for women in education than for employment.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation is the paucity of academic study about gender equality in education and employment in the United Arab Emirates. Reliability and validity of the study is somewhat limited by unverified, non‐specific, and older data on education and employment.

Practical implications

Improved strategies to increase study choice are required to enlarge the scope of women's careers. Management of the talent pool of educated females can increase women's share of paid employment in the future.

Social implications

A faster rate of change is required towards societal acceptance of women in employment to match female educational attainment.

Originality/value

The research is important for two reasons relevant for achievement of MDG (3) by 2015. Remarkable progress has been made on gender equality in education, and awareness is raised on limitations in the future for the employment of women.

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Bambang Tjahjadi, Noorlailie Soewarno, Elga Astri and Hariyati Hariyati

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether performance management system (PMS) has a positive effect on organizational performance. Furthermore, it also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether performance management system (PMS) has a positive effect on organizational performance. Furthermore, it also investigates whether intellectual capital (IC) mediates PMS-organizational performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is designed as a quantitative research employing a partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Using an online survey, data are collected from the HEIs managers under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, the Government of Indonesia (MRTH-GOI). This research uses a mediation model approach to test the indirect effect of IC.

Findings

The results reveal that PMS has a positive direct effect on organizational performance of the HEIs in Indonesia. Further analysis proves that IC partially mediates PMS-organizational relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This research is context-specific for Indonesia and caution should be used when generalizing it to other countries. It implies that the better the organizational performance of the HEIs, the better the quality of life in the society. PMS and IC play a crucial role in the era of knowledge economy.

Practical implications

The HEIs managers should design and implement a reliable PMS. They also should properly manage the IC (human capital, structural capital, relational capital) so that they can enhance organizational performance in areas of teaching, research and community service as the core business of the HEIs.

Social implications

As the global education competition has become a serious issue in each HEI in Indonesia, the results of this study contribute to providing an approach on how to achieve a better organizational performance which brings more benefits to the society. The HEIs display a strategic role in improving the quality of life of society. The knowledge economy requires society to enhance the quality of education at all levels. This research model and results provide empirical evidence of the importance of IC which mediates the relationship between PMS and organizational performance. When the HEIs in Indonesia implement this model of managing IC, the society will get more benefits in terms of the improvements in the quality of education, teaching, research and community service from the HEIs. The better the HEIs performance, the better the quality of life of the society in the era of knowledge economy.

Originality/value

This research brings together issues that are usually examined separately in previous studies. It employs a mediation research model to explore the central role of IC in PMS- organizational performance relationship which is rarely researched. This is also the first study exploring the three constructs of PMS, IC and organizational performance in the Indonesian HEIs research setting.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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