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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2015

Maria Teresa Tatto, Michael Rodriguez and Yang Lu

Are education systems converging toward a global model of teacher education or do local models tend to predominate in spite of attempts to reform them? How much do global…

Abstract

Are education systems converging toward a global model of teacher education or do local models tend to predominate in spite of attempts to reform them? How much do global, national, and local cultures shape and condition future teachers’ opportunities to learn to teach? How do these opportunities influence teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge? In this chapter we use data from the IEA’s first study of the effectiveness of pre-service teacher education in order to investigate teacher education policy, program structure, and outcomes. Using multilevel modeling we found that across countries individual characteristics have a similar and powerful influence on what future teachers come to know at the end of their pre-service programs. The effects of teacher education curriculum on future teachers’ mathematics pedagogical content knowledge reaffirm the prevalence of local cultures on the implementation of an increasingly globalized ideal. We conclude that while the provision of teacher education shares many common features in goals and structure across countries, it is strongly influenced by local conditions and norms, and by cultural notions of the knowledge that is considered essential – framing how quality is to be defined and operationalized – when learning to teach.

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Promoting and Sustaining a Quality Teacher Workforce
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-016-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Anne Konu, Elina Viitanen and Tomi Lintonen

The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' wellbeing in different types of schools (elementary, lower secondary and unified school) and to analyze how gender, type…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' wellbeing in different types of schools (elementary, lower secondary and unified school) and to analyze how gender, type of employment, working hours and time served as a teacher affected teachers' wellbeing and perceptions of questions concerning leadership practices and work organization in school.

Design/methodology/approach

The holistic school wellbeing evaluation tool was used to study the wellbeing of 1,294 Finnish teachers. The questions covered four categories of wellbeing: school conditions, social relationships, means for self‐fulfillment and health status. Quantitative methodology was used for analysis.

Findings

The general picture was that teachers' wellbeing was highest in elementary schools and lowest in lower secondary schools. The wellbeing of a male teacher, a teacher who had fixed‐term employment and a teacher who worked part‐time was higher than that of a female teacher, a permanent teacher and a full‐time teacher. Single questions concerning work organization and leadership practices followed mainly the same lines. Teachers in unified schools had the lowest ratings when questions relating to obtaining help from the principal, or the possibility of receiving further education and equal treatment were asked.

Practical implications

More attention needs to be paid to permanent teachers employed over a long time with regards to enhancing their wellbeing. In the unifying process of schools, equal treatment, obtaining the principal's help for the teachers and the likelihood of updating education are especially important aspects.

Originality/value

The paper presents a theory‐based evaluation of teachers' wellbeing as well as focal points for school development both from the wellbeing and administrative points of view.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Shaho Karami, Seyed Mohammad Shobeiri, Hamidreza Jafari and Hamidreza Jafari

Teachers can be regarded as key figures in climate change education (CCE). Therefore, the purpose of this study is assessment of Iranian lower secondary teachers? level…

Abstract

Purpose

Teachers can be regarded as key figures in climate change education (CCE). Therefore, the purpose of this study is assessment of Iranian lower secondary teachers? level of knowledge, attitudes and practices toward CCE in a less-touched-upon context.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study used a cross-sectional survey design, which used a specially designed questionnaire administered in ten high schools (five boys’ and five girls’ lower secondary schools). A sample of 108 lower secondary school teachers was selected through a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The gender structure of the sample was 48.1 per cent male and 51.9 per cent female subjects. To determine the status of teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices, the obtained quantitative data were classified into three categories on a scale of 100 per cent: good status (more than 75 per cent), moderate status (50-75 per cent) and weak status (less than 50 per cent).

Findings

The findings revealed that the involved teachers were equipped with an appropriate knowledge, i.e. 22.2 per cent good and 52.8 per cent moderate levels of knowledge. Furthermore, the subjects’ level of attitude was moderate (44.5 per cent); however, their level of practice was weak (52.8 per cent). In terms of gender, male subjects’ knowledge and attitude levels were higher than those of female subjects. However, female subjects reported higher levels of practice in comparison with male subjects. Overall, the results of this study highlighted the necessity of improving lower secondary teachers’ CCE in general and of the level of their attitudes and practices in particular.

Originality/value

The present study sheds more light on the change management and environmental education within the Iranian context. The results of this study accentuate the necessity of presenting more CCE programs for teachers. Furthermore, curriculum planners can take advantage of the obtained results to carry out curriculum reforms.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2015

Peter Wallet

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on…

Abstract

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on education, including those on and related to teachers. Based within a framework that emphasises quantity and quality issues for teachers, this chapter describes the current UIS international collection of teacher data, the policy options they intend to inform, as well as key limitations and challenges of the present data. In reaction to this, the chapter also presents UIS’s on-going developmental work related to the global data collection and statistics on primary and secondary teachers ranging from the measurement of current shortages, particularly in developing countries aiming to achieve universal primary education (UPE), to the expansion of an international framework that sheds additional light on teacher and teaching quality.

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Promoting and Sustaining a Quality Teacher Workforce
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-016-2

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2015

Armend Tahirsylaj, Kristina Brezicha and Sakiko Ikoma

This chapter explores the difference in two orientations – didaktik and curriculum – and examines how these differing stances relate to teachers’ instructional practice…

Abstract

This chapter explores the difference in two orientations – didaktik and curriculum – and examines how these differing stances relate to teachers’ instructional practice, engagement with professional development opportunities, and lesson design. A didaktik orientation influences much of the Nordic and Germanic countries, while a curriculum orientation is widespread in Commonwealth of Nations and the United States. This chapter explores the differences between these two theories of learning and teaching. More than just different theories of teaching and learning, we argue these theories shape how we see the world (i.e., objectified vs. subjectified) and manifest themselves in distinctive understandings of schools’ purpose, the type of learning engaged therein, and how people learn. Consequently, these orientations affect the teacher’s role, the qualifications necessary to teach, as well as other aspects of teacher quality such as instructional methods, and types of professional development.

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Promoting and Sustaining a Quality Teacher Workforce
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-016-2

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Jonas Hallström

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the Swedish Association of Biology Teachers (ABT) and some other subject associations helped form pre-service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the Swedish Association of Biology Teachers (ABT) and some other subject associations helped form pre-service biology teacher education in two major Swedish reforms from ca. 1960 to 1990.

Design/methodology/approach

The activities of subject associations can be understood as boundary-work since they defend their subject boundaries in terms of content, space in the timetable, and legitimacy. A hermeneutic method of text interpretation is employed in analyzing historical archival and parliamentary material.

Findings

The work of the ABT to demarcate their subject in the 1968 and 1988 Teacher Education Reforms may seem like merely defending certain biological items instead of others, in the name of science. However, it was also a professional struggle to assert the importance of the teachers, their jobs, education, knowledge of biology subject matter, and thereby their professional authority and autonomy. The ABT were also caught in a political struggle for their subject throughout the period of investigation. Depending on the political winds of the time they therefore had to ally themselves with or distance themselves from various actors.

Originality/value

In comparison with the few other studies of subject associations, this paper is unique in outlining how the ABT acted in relation to teacher education. However, the ways of doing boundary-work were still very similar to those used by subject associations in schools in other countries, especially in acting for increased study time in their respective science subjects as well as their resistance to subject integration. An obvious conclusion regarding teacher education is that subject associations such as the ABT did not contribute to bridging the gap between subject matter and pedagogy but rather the opposite. Biology teacher education was seen as an academic pursuit carried out at universities rather than at the practically oriented teacher training colleges.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Ann Elisabeth Gunnulfsen and Astrid Roe

The purpose of this paper is to examine teachers’ reported experiences, practices, and attitudes on the use of national test results in a low-stakes accountability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine teachers’ reported experiences, practices, and attitudes on the use of national test results in a low-stakes accountability context. Whether the stakes are high or low, teachers and school leaders have different experiences, knowledge, and beliefs concerning how to use national test results to benefit individual student learning. This paper addresses how teachers experience school leadership and policy requirements for using national test results in local schools.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is part of a larger study conducted in a Norwegian educational context investigating school leaders’ and teachers’ enactments of policy demands via the use of national test results data. The sub-study reported in this paper is based on survey data from all lower secondary teachers (n=176) in one Norwegian municipality. Micro-policy perspectives and the concept of crafting policy coherence served as analytical tools.

Findings

Diversity between the schools was found in how teachers perceive the principals’ role. Practices and attitudes appeared restrained, somewhat conformed by, but still indifferent to the policy intention. However, there was a close relationship between the principals’ facilitation of national tests and the teachers’ practices of utilizing the results.

Originality/value

This study clarified how micro-policy works in local schools in a low-stakes context. A prominent difference was found between the policy intentions and local schools’ practice of using national test results.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Lena Nordheim, Kjell Sverre Pettersen, Signe Flottorp and Esther Hjälmhult

Critical appraisal skills are necessary to navigate the numerous contradictory and pseudo-scientific claims in the popular media. Health and science education in schools…

Abstract

Purpose

Critical appraisal skills are necessary to navigate the numerous contradictory and pseudo-scientific claims in the popular media. Health and science education in schools is essential for promoting these skills in students. The purpose of this paper is to explore lower secondary school science teachers’ perceptions and reported practices related to teaching critical appraisal of health claims.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretive description strategy guided the study process. A purposeful sample of 25 Norwegian teachers was interviewed individually or in groups. Interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method.

Findings

One main theme, “unexploited opportunities for teaching critical appraisal”, and three sub-themes were identified: “inattentive to the relevance of critical appraisal”, “prioritise facts over critical appraisal”, “limited competency in critical appraisal”. Teachers’ descriptions of science sessions devoted to health education uncovered important opportunities for teaching critical appraisal of health claims. However, teachers did not appear to seize opportunities because they seemed inattentive to the relevance of teaching critical appraisal, they reported to prioritise teaching health content knowledge, and teachers themselves revealed limited expertise in assessing health claims critically.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that science teachers need support to take better advantage of the links between health and science education to enhance students’ critical appraisal skills.

Originality/value

This study adds depth to the understanding of issues and challenges faced by science teachers regarding critical appraisal of health claims, which is an important aspect of health education schools.

Details

Health Education, vol. 116 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Paula Razquin

This chapter reviews the empirical research on the supply of teachers in Latin America. The first part stresses the importance of teacher labor market perspectives for…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the empirical research on the supply of teachers in Latin America. The first part stresses the importance of teacher labor market perspectives for understanding the supply of high-quality teachers, one challenge that most countries in the region face. The second part introduces the teacher labor market framework that guides the search, while the third section describes the goal of the review and the methodology. It follows a mapping, description, and classification of the empirical research on the teacher supply and a discussion of the main findings. The chapter ends with a summary and a brief discussion of the implications for teacher policies.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Kinga M. Ober, Andrzej Twardowski and Melinda R. Pierson

This chapter focuses on the special education system of education in Poland since the transformation of the political system in the late 1980s. The move from segregated…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the special education system of education in Poland since the transformation of the political system in the late 1980s. The move from segregated settings toward more integrated settings for students with low-incidence disabilities is described along with the new structure of special education identification and classroom settings. Current strategies and support for students with high-incidence disabilities in Poland who are placed in general education and special education are discussed. Ideas on how to improve the existing system are outlined and solutions are presented. Overall, the implementation of educational reforms brought about positive changes in educational settings for most students identified with special needs in Poland. Due to this emphasis on inclusion, more students with high-incidence disabilities have the chance to succeed in integrated schools with adequate support.

Details

Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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