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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Jayashri Bangali, Sunit Rane, Girish Phatak and Shashikala Gangal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and report the impact of glass frit variation in silver thick film pastes used as surface conductors in low temperature co‐fired

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and report the impact of glass frit variation in silver thick film pastes used as surface conductors in low temperature co‐fired ceramics technology (LTCC), especially on the properties such as warpage of LTCC associated with conductors, microstructure of the fired thick films, sheet resistance and adhesion on LTCC.

Design/methodology/approach

Silver thick film paste compositions were formulated by changing the silver glass frit ratio. The compatibility of these formulated paste compositions with LTCC (DP 951AX) substrate were evaluated. The properties such as microstructure developments, the change in sheet resistance, warpage of LTCC substrate with respect to glass frit ratio of the developed silver films on LTCC were evaluated.

Findings

The results reveal that the glass frit percentage used in paste formulation is equally responsible for the disturbance in the properties such as microstructure, warping and electrical properties of the fired thick films on LTCC. It was observed that the paste composition, in particular sample SP10B containing the highest glass frit percentage, is compatible with the LTCC tape under processing conditions. The sheet resistance value in the range of 5 mΩ/□ and the fired films showed very good adhesion (3.95 N), irrespective of the glass frit composition.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful evaluations of properties such as microstructure developments, changes in sheet resistance and warpage of LTCC substrate with respect to glass frit ratio of the developed silver pastes on LTCC.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Dominik Jurków

– The paper aims to present the influence of the co-firing process conditions of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) on the deformation of thin LTCC membranes.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the influence of the co-firing process conditions of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) on the deformation of thin LTCC membranes.

Design/methodology/approach

The statistical design of the experiment methodology was used in the frame of these investigations to reduce the time and costs of the experiments and to ensure easier interpretation of the obtained results. Moreover, this conception permits the rough estimation of the membrane deflection fired at optimal process conditions.

Findings

The applied design of the experiment methodology allowed the researchers to find the optimal co-firing process conditions and to estimate the membrane deflection at the optimal process conditions. The estimation fits well with the results of real measurement that was conducted to confirm the estimation precision.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment was conducted for only one type of LTCC, DP951. The precision of the design of the experiment optimization and estimation of the response at optimal conditions depend on the described object. Therefore, the findings of this paper do not have to be generally true for other LTCC tapes, and if other LTCC tapes deformation should be investigated, then similar analysis shall be conducted for them.

Practical implications

The deformation of LTCC membranes affects the sensitivity and repeatability of LTCC acceleration and pressure sensors. Hence, the decrease of membrane deflection increases the usability of LTCC in such applications.

Originality/value

This paper presents simple optimization of co-firing process conditions of LTCC devices using statistical design of the experiment.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Winco K.C. Yung and Jijun Zhu

Low temperature co‐fired ceramics (LTCC) material is introduced as an excellent alternative to silicon, glass, or plastic materials for the fabrication of miniaturised…

Abstract

Purpose

Low temperature co‐fired ceramics (LTCC) material is introduced as an excellent alternative to silicon, glass, or plastic materials for the fabrication of miniaturised analytical devices, though it is most widely used in the automotive and microwave industries. The paper aims to study the laser ablation of LTCC material.

Design/methodology/approach

This kind of green tape material is mechanised by excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm) and UV laser (Nd: YAG, 355 nm), and for the first time by infra‐red laser (1,090 nm). The optical photos and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) photos of the LTCC ablated by different kinds of laser sources are given in this paper.

Findings

When using the UV laser, the tapered structure can be easily seen from the SEM photo. However, a kind of clear and perfect ablation of LTCC can be seen for the first time by the 1,090 nm infra‐red laser ablation.

Originality/value

The laser ablation of LTCC by optical fibre sources is discussed.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Karol Malecha, Marek Dawgul and Dorota G Pijanowska

The purpose of this paper is to focus on development and electrical characterization of miniature ion-selective electrode (ISE) for application in micro total analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on development and electrical characterization of miniature ion-selective electrode (ISE) for application in micro total analysis system or lab-on-chip devices. The presented ISE is made using low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). It shows possibility of integration chemically sensitive layers with structures fabricated using modern microelectronic technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented ISEs were fabricated using LTCC microelectronic technology. The possibility of ISE fabrication on multilayer ceramic substrate made of two different LTCC material systems (CeramTec GC, Du Pont 951) with deposited thick-film silver pad is studied. Different configurations of LTCC/silver pad (surface, embedded) are taken into account. Electrical performance of all LTCC-based structures with integrated ISE was examined experimentally.

Findings

The preliminary measurements made for ammonium ions have shown good repeatability and linear response with slope of about 30-35 mV/dec. Moreover, no significant impact of the LTCC material system and silver pad configuration on fabricated ISEs’ electrical properties was noticed.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is a preliminary work. The authors focused on ISE fabrication on LTCC substrates without any microfluidic structures. Therefore, further research work will be needed to evolve ion-selective membrane deposition inside microfluidic structures made in LTCC substrates.

Practical implications

Development of the LTCC-based ISE makes the fabrication of detection units for integrated microfluidic systems possible. These devices can find practical applications in analytical diagnosis and continuous monitoring of various biochemical parameters.

Originality/value

This paper shows design, fabrication and performance of the novel ISE fabrication using LTCC technology.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Arkadiusz Dabrowski, Przemyslaw Rydygier, Mateusz Czok and Leszek Golonka

The purpose of this study was to design, fabricate and test devices based on transformers integrated with low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) modules with isolation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to design, fabricate and test devices based on transformers integrated with low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) modules with isolation between primary and secondary windings at the level between 6 and 12 kV.

Design/methodology/approach

Insulating properties of the LTCC were examined. Dielectric strength and volume resistivity were determined for common LTCC tapes: 951 (DuPont), 41020, 41060 (ESL), A6M (Ferro) and SK47 (KEKO). According to the determined properties, three different devices were designed, fabricated and tested: a compact DC/DC converter, a galvanic separator for serial digital bus and a transformer for high-voltage generator.

Findings

Breakdown field intensity higher than 40 kV/mm was obtained for the test samples set, whereas the best breakdown field intensity of about 90 kV/mm was obtained for 951 tape. The materials 41020 and 951 exhibited the highest volume resistivity. Fabricated devices exhibited safe operation up to a potential difference of 10 kV, limited by minimum clearance. Long-term stability was assured by over 20 kV strength of inner dielectric.

Practical implications

This paper contains description of three devices made in the LTCC technology for application in systems with high-voltage isolation requirement, for example, for power or railway power networks.

Originality/value

The results show that LTCC is a suitable material for fabrication of high-voltage devices with integrated passives. Technology and properties of three examples of such devices are described, demonstrating the ability of the LTCC technology for application in reliable high-voltage devices and systems.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Kostja Makarovič, Darko Belavič, Barbara Malič, Andreja Benčan, Franci Kovač and Janez Holc

The purpose of this study is the design, fabrication and evaluation of a miniature ozone generator using the principle of electric discharge are presented.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the design, fabrication and evaluation of a miniature ozone generator using the principle of electric discharge are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The device was fabricated using a low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, by which a multilayered ceramic structure with integrated electrodes, buried channels and cavities in micro and millimeter scales was realized.

Findings

The developed ozone generator with the dimensions of 63.6 × 41.8 × 1.3 mm produces approximately 1 vol. % of ozone in oxygen flow of 15 ml/min, at an applied voltage of 7 kV.

Originality/value

A miniature ozone generator, manufactured in LTCC technology, produces high amount of ozone and more than it is described in the available references or in datasheets of commercial devices of similar size.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Karol Malecha

This paper aims to present a research on utilization of an irreversible bonding between non-transparent low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and transparent…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a research on utilization of an irreversible bonding between non-transparent low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The research presented in this paper is focused on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for fluorescence measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

The chemical combination of both materials is achieved through surface modification using argon-oxygen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. According to the performed spectroscopic analyses (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; attenuated total reflection-Fourier infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements, the LTCC and PDMS surfaces are oxidized during the process. The presented microfluidic module was fabricated using LTCC technology. The possibility for the fabrication of LTCC-PDMS microfluidic fluorescent sensor is studied. The performance of the sensor was examined experimentally.

Findings

As a result of DBD plasma oxidation, the LTCC and PDMS surfaces change in character from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and were permanently bonded. The presented LTCC-PDMS bonding technique was used to fabricate a microfluidic fluorescent sensor. The preliminary measurements of the sensor have proven that it is possible to observe the fluorescence of a liquid sample from a very small volume.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is a preliminary work which is focused on the fabrication of the LTCC-PDMS fluorescent sensor. The microfluidic device was positively tested only for ethanolic fluorescein solutions. Therefore, fluorescence measurements should be performed for biological specimen (e.g. DNA).

Practical implications

The LTCC-PDMS bonding technology combines the advantages of both materials. One the one hand, transparent PDMS with precise, transparent three-dimensional structures can be fabricated using hot embossing, soft lithography or laser ablation. On the other hand, rigid LTCC substrate consisting of microfluidic structures, electric interconnections, heaters and optoelectronic components can be fabricated. The development of the LTCC-PDMS microfluidic modules provides opportunity for the construction of a lab-on-chip, or micro-total analysis systems-type system, for analytical chemistry and fast medical diagnoses.

Originality/value

This paper shows utilization of the PDMS-LTCC bonding technology for microfluidics. Moreover, the design, fabrication and performance of the PDMS-LTCC fluorescent sensor are presented.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Karol Malecha, Elżbieta Remiszewska and Dorota G Pijanowska

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for urea determination. The presented module was made using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the technology and performance of the miniature microfluidic module for urea determination. The presented module was made using low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). It shows the possibility for the integration of the bioreceptor layers with structures that have been fabricated using modern microelectronic technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented microfluidic module was fabricated using LTCC technology. The possibility for the fabrication of an enzymatic microreactor in a multilayer ceramic substrate, made of CeramTec glass ceramic (GC) material systems with an integrated thick-film heater, is studied. Different configurations of the LTCC/heater materials (gold, silvers and palladium-silver) are taken into account. The performance of the LTCC-based microfluidic module with the integrated heater and immobilized enzyme was examined experimentally.

Findings

A compatible material for the heater embedded in the CeramTec GC-based structures was found. The preliminary measurements made for the test solution containing various concentrations of urea have shown stability (for seven days of operation) and a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (above 3 pH units) for the microreactor’s output signal.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is a preliminary work which is focused on the fabrication of the LTCC-based microfluidic module, with an integrated heater and immobilized enzyme for urea determination. The device was positively tested using a model reaction of the hydrolysis of urea. However, urea concentration in real (biological) fluid should also be measured.

Practical implications

The development of the LTCC-based microfluidic module for urea determination provides opportunity for the construction of a lab-on-chip, or μTAS-type system, for fast medical diagnoses and the continuous monitoring of various biochemical parameters, e.g. for estimating the effectiveness of hemodialysis.

Originality/value

This paper shows the design, fabrication and performance of the novel microfluidic module for urea determination, made with LTCC technology.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jakub Somer, Michal Štekovič, František Urban, Josef Šandera and Ivan Szendiuch

The purpose of this paper is to focus on a description of reliable bonding technique of zero-shrink low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and alumina ceramics. LTCC is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on a description of reliable bonding technique of zero-shrink low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and alumina ceramics. LTCC is widely used for manufacturing electrical systems in 3D configuration. LTCC substrates were so far bonded with alumina ceramics using additional adhesive layers with subsequent firing or curing cycle. With the advent of the zero-shrink LTCC substrates, it is now possible to bond unfired substrates with other fired substrates, for example fired LTCC or alumina substrates. Alumina substrate in combination with LTCC brings advantages of good thermal conductivity for usage in heating elements or packaging.

Design/methodology/approach

The test structure contains a thick-film pattern for verification of the compatibility of the bonding process. We have used two methods for bonding the substrates: cold chemical lamination (CCL) and thermo compression method, using a dielectric thick-film paste as the adhesive. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electric testing of the screen-printed patterns were used for verification of the bonding quality.

Findings

The thermo-compression method gave poor results in comparison with the CCL method. The best quality of lamination was achieved at room temperature combined with low pressure for both types of bonding materials. In addition, a possibility of using this bonding method for sensor fabrication was investigated. The ceramic pressure sensor samples with a cavity were created.

Originality/value

The possibility of bonding two different ceramic materials was investigated. A new approach to ceramic bonding showed promising results with possible use in sensors.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Martin Ihle, Steffen Ziesche, Paul Gierth, Andreas Tuor, Jonathan Tigelaar and Oliver Hirsch

The purpose of this paper is to analyze a presentation of eddy current sensing coils for the turbo charger speed measurement, which were manufactured with the low

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze a presentation of eddy current sensing coils for the turbo charger speed measurement, which were manufactured with the low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The goal is to be able to manufacture small robust coils with complex geometries and improved signal output.

Design/methodology/approach

A crucial element for its performance is the quality factor of the embedded coil. Thanks to the use of the developed LTCC manufacturing processes, the lateral wounding distance of the printed coils can be reduced to 30 µm, and simultaneously, the aspect ratio should be enlarged compared to standard LTCC technologies. By the use of a novel printed double-D coil design, the overall sensor characteristics will be improved.

Findings

The metallization thickness can be simultaneously enhanced that results in the internal resistance being reduced. Thus, the inductivity and the ohmic resistance achieve an obvious optimization that results in significant improvement of the quality factor of the novel coils when compared to standard technologies. Embedded micro coils have a sintered metallization aspect ratio of more than one and thus an optimal performance differing clearly from prior art. Their reliability was proven through temperature cycle tests of over more than 1,300 h.

Research limitations/implications

The developed LTCC coil technology will be introduced in the JAQUET sensor portfolio of TE Connectivity for the measurement of turbocharger speed on both passenger cars and trucks. The measurement and control of turbochargers speed enables the optimal regulation of airflow into the engine thereby improving the fuel economy and leading to a reduction of engine emissions.

Originality/value

This paper shows fabrication and performance of the original manufactured LTCC coil for turbocharger speed sensors and its optimized signal output by the novel design.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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