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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Stephen Oduro

Much of the scholarly works on open innovation have significantly highlighted the application of the model in high-tech industries in the developed world. However, how the…

Abstract

Purpose

Much of the scholarly works on open innovation have significantly highlighted the application of the model in high-tech industries in the developed world. However, how the phenomenon applies in low-tech small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries is still marginal and lacks substantive research. This study aims to draw on the network theory of innovation to examine the open innovation orientations of low-tech SMEs in an emerging market context, particularly Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design used was a qualitative–quantitative approach: the qualitative phase of the study, involving 31 low-tech SMEs, used a multiple case approach through semi-structured interviews and analyzed the interview responses using NVivo statistical tool; the quantitative phase, including 706 low-tech SMEs, also used a survey questionnaire approach and descriptively analyzed data collected using SPSS statistical tool.

Findings

Results disclose that the low-tech SMEs’ employment of the open innovation model are preponderantly driven by commercialization purposes, knowledge acquisition motives, financial motives and strategic motives, whereas their open innovation approaches include inbound strategies (collaboration with suppliers, co-creation/customer immersion), outbound strategies (IP licensing out) and coupled strategies (strategic alliances, contract manufacturing, and joint ventures). Moreover, the findings show that the SMEs’ preferred open innovation partners include suppliers, customers, private universities and non-industry, in that order. Finally, results show that the low-tech SMEs’ open innovation advantages include market gains, strategic gains, knowledge gains, operational gains, financial gains and network gains, whereas their open innovation challenges colossally were collaboration barriers and organizational barriers.

Practical implications

These findings purvey valuable perceptiveness for managers, academicians and policymakers alike; they highlight the importance of open innovation to low-tech SMEs, proven strategies, challenges involved and the mechanisms for effective and efficient adoption of the open innovation model.

Originality/value

The value of this study reclines in the extension of open innovation research from high-tech industries in the advanced world to low-tech SMEs in emerging economies. Results of the study enrich the knowledge and understanding of how the theoretical model of open innovation is adopted and implemented by the low-tech SME sector in emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Tian Tian He, Hao Hu and Yi Tao Wang

The aim of this paper was to attempt to investigate the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry in Guangdong Province of China by applying a…

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2448

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper was to attempt to investigate the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry in Guangdong Province of China by applying a perspective of sectoral system of innovation (SSI). TCM industry in China has experienced an evolution path from low-tech to modern industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical framework of sectoral system innovation for explaining the change in TCM industry in Guangdong Province has been conducted.

Findings

It shows that during the successful transformation of the TCM industry in Guangdong from low-tech to modern sector, national and provincial institution are acting as main drivers. Knowledge integration is the decision factor of modernization and innovation strategy as an actor that makes the transformation adjust and operate efficiently. Other actors, such as demand and external networks interplay together and led to a gradual organizational, structural and institutional change and modernization of TCM industry.

Originality/value

SSI analyses of TCM in China have never been conducted before, this paper also contributes to enrich the experience of low-tech industry transformation and provide references to other low-tech industries around the world.

Details

Journal of Science & Technology Policy Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Jooh Lee and James Jungbae Roh

Corporate reputation is regarded as an intangible asset which differentiates a firm from others and attracts customers to repurchase and willingly pay a premium price for…

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4054

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate reputation is regarded as an intangible asset which differentiates a firm from others and attracts customers to repurchase and willingly pay a premium price for products. However, despite the perceptive association between reputation and financial performance, empirical studies report inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to investigate this link more comprehensively using four different reputation attributes and firm characteristics in the context of high‐ vs low‐tech companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study operationalizes the corporate reputation as the four measures of Fortune's “America's Most Admired Companies” of 2008 and matched the companies with financial performance and firm characteristics measures from COMPUSTAT Research Insight for the period between 2001 and 2005. A total of 230 firms (108 in high‐tech vs 122 in low‐tech) over the same period were selected and stepwise multiple regression analysis probed the relationship between the corporate reputation and performance.

Findings

The key finding of this study is that such variables as corporate reputation are significantly and positively related with most indices of corporate performance measures while debt leverage affects profitability negatively. It was surprising to find that innovativeness turned out to have no impact on financial performance in both high‐ and low‐tech firms. The positive association between social responsibility and firm performance appeared to be partially supported because it showed significant impact on market‐based performance, but not on accounting‐based performance.

Originality/value

This study confirms the resource‐based view that a valuable, inimitable, and non‐substitutable asset such as corporate reputation leads firms to enhance financial and market performance. However, the effect is contingent on firm characteristics such as firm size, R&D intensity, debt leverage ratio, and capital intensity. Corporate reputation appears to emerge as a critical dimension of benchmarking of a firm performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Maria José Palma Lampreia Dos-Santos and Henrique Diz

Efficiency and productivity has always being a key issue in economic science. The analysis of the impact of research and development (R&D) has been extensively studied in…

Abstract

Efficiency and productivity has always being a key issue in economic science. The analysis of the impact of research and development (R&D) has been extensively studied in industries and countries of more or less aggregated level. This chapter aims to investigate the impact of corporate R&D in performance of low-tech industries, medium-tech, and high-tech in OECD countries.

This chapter aims to answer the questions: Is the impact of R&D significant for all types of industries? If so, what are the differences and the magnitude of these effects in each of these types of industries?

To this end, an unbalanced data set from 2000 to 2011 was collected for the main countries of Europe and the United States concerning low-, medium-, and high-tech to analyze the impact of the magnitude of corporate R&D and capital accumulation on productivity of these industries. The productivity of industries was measured by stochastic parametric frontier functions, in order to measure the efficiency of R&D and accumulation of capital on labor productivity.

The main results highlight the impact of corporate R&D on productivity of high-tech industries, but for other industries those relations are not clear. However, capital accumulation became crucial on low technology to improve their performance. These results, although needing to include a more extensive data set of industries across countries, refer the need for policy and decision makers to allocate public funds for R&D in high-tech industries, while the investment in capital seems crucial, particularly in low-tech industries to improve the productivity.

Details

The Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives of Management: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-249-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

João P. Romero and John S.L. McCombie

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate the existence of different degrees of returns to scale in low-tech and high-tech manufacturing industries; and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate the existence of different degrees of returns to scale in low-tech and high-tech manufacturing industries; and to examine whether the degrees of returns to scale change through time.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical investigation implemented in the paper uses data from the EU KLEMS Database, covering a sample of 12 manufacturing industries in 11 OECD countries over the period 1976-2006. The investigation employed two different estimation methods: instrumental variables and system GMM. The robustness of the results was assessed by employing two different specifications of Kaldor-Verdoorn’s Law, by using lags and five-year averages to smooth business-cycle fluctuations, and by dividing the sample into two time periods.

Findings

The results reported in the paper provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis of substantial increasing returns to scale in manufacturing. The investigation suggests that high-tech manufacturing industries exhibit larger degrees of returns to scale than low-tech manufacturing industries. Finally, the analysis revealed also that the magnitude of the returns to scale in manufacturing have increased in the last decades, driven by increases in the magnitude of returns to scale observed in high-tech industries.

Originality/value

No previous work has assessed the hypothesis that increasing returns to scale vary according to the technological content of industries. Moreover, no previous work has used system GMM or data from EU KLEMS to test Kaldor-Verdoorn’s Law. Most importantly, the findings of the paper present new evidence on the degree of returns to scale in high-tech and low-tech manufacturing industries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Martti Lindman, Barbara Scozzi and Carmen Otero‐Neira

The purpose of this study is to examine the new product management practices adopted by low‐tech small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the context of…

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2332

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the new product management practices adopted by low‐tech small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the context of design‐intensive products.

Design/methodology/approach

The results are based on a multi‐case comparative setting covering SMEs in furniture industry in three countries, Italy, Spain and Finland.

Findings

The study shows considerable differences in performance that occur in terms of the degree of design and innovation, goal orientation and the systematics by which a single furniture business is managed. Proactiveness and freedom in design and innovation together with systematic new product development (NPD) and goal orientation enhances NPD performance. As to the new product uniqueness, innovative design is applicable in furniture industry much as in a similar way as new technological knowledge is in technology industries. The management education and/or interests which are closely related to furniture design and decoration have a clear impact on the level up to which innovative designs are implemented.

Practical implications

The study has direct implications for furniture companies aiming at improving their competitiveness and NPD effectiveness. The study points out the importance of creating a proper innovative culture and being open to new ideas if export markets are targeted.

Originality/value

Technology intensive products in large‐ and medium‐sized companies have been the main focus of NPD performance research, also facing the risk of over‐generalization due to cross‐industry approaches. Low‐tech industries however play a major role as to national income and employment. In this respect the present study aims to highlight the prevailing NPD practices in small design‐intensive firms in the furniture industry by reporting any management gaps which may occur in terms of new product performance.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Marta Buenechea-Elberdin, Josune Sáenz and Aino Kianto

This study aims to analyse the complementary role of structural and relational capital (as the outcomes of codification and personalisation knowledge management…

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1921

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the complementary role of structural and relational capital (as the outcomes of codification and personalisation knowledge management strategies) in renewal capital and innovation in high- and low-tech companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data, which were collected through a structured questionnaire from 180 Spanish companies, are analysed using structural equation modelling based on partial least squares.

Findings

Overall, the study offers three fundamental findings. First, it demonstrates the outstanding role of renewal capital as an intellectual capital (IC) component; second, it provides a conceptual analysis of the connection between knowledge management strategies and IC; and third, it highlights the necessity of considering the technological level of the firm as a contingency variable affecting the IC–innovation relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The study has three apparent limitations: The sample of firms is restricted to Spanish companies, data concerning the main study variables were collected from only one person at each firm, and not all of the possible components of IC were included in the research model.

Practical implications

Business practitioners can find useful guidelines for making efficient use of knowledge resources when boosting innovation performance, depending on the technological level of their firms.

Originality/value

Although many studies have tried to disentangle the IC–innovation connection, this study is unique, as it considers knowledge management strategies, a novel combination of IC components and the level of technological sophistication in the same analysis.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Nitin Pangarkar and Lin Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to examine how geographic diversification affects the performance of international new ventures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how geographic diversification affects the performance of international new ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops hypotheses about the individual and joint effects of geographic diversification and industry life cycle on the performance of international new ventures. This paper also introduces industry technology characteristics as a contingent factor for the above relationships and tests the hypotheses on a large panel data set.

Findings

Based on the analyses of the strategies and performance of 699 listed Chinese international new ventures between 1991 and 2014, this study finds that the impact of geographic diversification on performance is contingent on the stage of the industry life cycle and that the moderating effect differs across high-technology and low-technology industries. The results suggest that it is fruitful for international new ventures in high-technology industries to undertake geographic diversification in earlier stages of the industry life cycle, but international new ventures in low-technology industries are better off undertaking geographic diversification during the later stages of the industry life cycle.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on international entrepreneurship by identifying the industry life cycle conditions under which the learning advantages of international new ventures are effective and facilitate the achievement of better performance. This paper also shows that industry technology type matters for geographic diversification strategies of international new ventures.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Antje Schimke and Thomas Brenner

This paper aims to examine the short-term structure of the impact of R&D investments on turnover growth, indicating differences between tangible and intangible…

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1472

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the short-term structure of the impact of R&D investments on turnover growth, indicating differences between tangible and intangible investments. The main questions are whether R&D and capital investments accompany firms' growth in the subsequent periods and how this relationship depends on other characteristics of the firms, such as size and industry. In addition, the authors study the relationship between R&D investments and the autocorrelation dynamics of firm growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the European Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard as data source. This data source includes 1,000 European companies with information on employees, turnover, sector affiliation and details on capital expenditure and R&D expenditure.

Findings

The authors find that R&D activities have, on average, a positive effect on turnover growth, while capital investments show both, positive and negative, relationships with firm growth. The relationship and its temporal structure strongly depend on firm size and industry affiliation as well as whether investments are considered as one-time or permanent activities.

Originality/value

Usually, the impacts of firm characteristics on firm growth are studied without explicitly considering time. Firm characteristics and firm growth are usually measured and examined at the same point in time. In contrast, the study will focus on the short-term structure of the influence of firm characteristics on turnover growth, especially the impact of R&D investments.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Darija Aleksić, Kaja Rangus and Alenka Slavec Gomezel

The purpose of this research is to better understand the human aspects of open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by exploring how intrinsic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to better understand the human aspects of open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by exploring how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence enjoyment in helping others, knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding and consequently firms' open innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected data with a survey among CEOs in 140 SMEs and performed confirmatory factor analysis applying structural equation modeling in IBM SPSS AMOS (v. 26).

Findings

Results reveal that intrinsic motivation is positively associated with helping behavior and knowledge sharing and negatively associated with knowledge hiding. We also confirm the positive relationship between extrinsic motivation and knowledge sharing. Moreover, we find that knowledge sharing increases and knowledge hiding decreases the firm-level open innovation. Especially in high-tech industry, knowledge sharing is a vital determinant of open innovation.

Originality/value

Responding to the calls for a deeper understanding of the individual-level factors that determine organization-level open innovation, in this research we focus on the human aspect of open innovation in SMEs. Open innovation is a widely recognized and implemented concept among large corporations and facilitates better understanding of new technological and market developments both within and outside of organizations. However, understanding of the microfoundations of open innovation in smaller firms is still limited, but this steam of research is growing rapidly.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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